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Fra 2014 Antisemitism Update 2003 2013 Web

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Fra 2014 Antisemitism Update 2003 2013 Web
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    Antisemitism   Summary overview of the data available   in the European Union 200 3  –201 3   October 201 4 HELPING TO MAKE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS A REALITY FOR EVERYONE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION    CONTENTS Introduction ....................................................................................... 3   Manifestations of antisemitism ...................................................... 3   Limited data collection on antisemitism ........................................ 5   The legal framework ........................................................................ 7   Data collection for this update ........................................................ 9   Data from international organisations ........................................... 9  Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights ......................................... 9 European Commission against Racism and Intolerance....................................10  National data on antisemitism ...................................................... 13  Austria ......................................................................................................................14 Belgium ....................................................................................................................18 Croatia ......................................................................................................................22 Czech Republic ........................................................................................................23 Denmark ..................................................................................................................25 Finland ......................................................................................................................27 France .......................................................................................................................28 Germany ..................................................................................................................30 Greece ......................................................................................................................33 Hungary ....................................................................................................................34 Ireland ......................................................................................................................36 Italy ...........................................................................................................................37 Latvia ........................................................................................................................38 Lithuania ..................................................................................................................39 The Netherlands .....................................................................................................40 Poland ......................................................................................................................44 Slovakia ....................................................................................................................46 Spain .........................................................................................................................47 Sweden ....................................................................................................................48 United Kingdom ......................................................................................................50  Concluding remarks – persisting gaps in data collection ........... 54    Antisemitism – Summary overview of data available in the European Union 2003–2013 3 Introduction Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, property damage, graffiti or other forms of text, including hate speech on the internet. The present update relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are recorded by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States. ‘Official data’ is understood here as that collected by law enforcement agencies, criminal justice systems and relevant state ministries at the national level. ‘Unofficial data’ refers to data collected by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and civil society organisations (CSOs). This update compiles available data on antisemitic incidents collected by international, governmental and non-governmental sources, covering the period 1 January 2003–31 December 2013. No data on manifestations of antisemitism were available for Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Romania and Slovenia at the time this update was compiled. This is the 10th in a series of yearly updates about data collected on antisemitism published by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and its predecessor, the European Union Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Manifestations of antisemitism During the course of the 19 th  century, anti-Jewish sentiment began to move away from more or less exclusively religious considerations. Instead, they came to be articulated more in terms of assumed negative traits thought to be shared by Jewish populations as a whole. This process of ‘racialisation’ of Jewish populations became expressed in openly antisemitic political agendas across Europe from the late 19th century onwards. At the end of that century, deadly anti-Jewish pogroms took place in the Russian Empire. The National Socialist (Nazi) regime exemplified the worst excesses of anti-Semitism, with its atrocities carried out prior to and during the Second World War. After the war, a transformation occurred in the public expression of antisemitism. While open manifestations of antisemitism generally came to be seen and treated as socially unacceptable and punishable by law, and were thereby banished to the fringes of society, there arose what is known as ‘secondary antisemitism’. Drawing on older, openly antisemitic stereotypes, a typical claim of secondary antisemitism is, for example, that ‘Jews’ manipulate Germans or Austrians by exploiting their feelings of guilt about the Second World War. Characteristic of all forms of secondary antisemitism is that they relate to the Holocaust and that they allow speakers to express antisemitic sentiments indirectly. Antisemitism may, for example, be manifested in the denial and/or trivialisation of the Holocaust.  Antisemitism – Summary overview of data available in the European Union 2003–2013 4 The ongoing political conflict between Israel and Palestine has played an important role in the development and expression of antisemitism in the contemporary period, leading some to speak of a ‘new antisemitism’, sometimes also referred to as anti-Zionism. FRA survey on antisemitism in the EU Antisemitism is still a reality in the EU. Little is known, however, of how it affects  Jewish communities. That is why, in 2012, FRA conducted a survey asking self-identified Jews their opinions about trends in antisemitism; how antisemitism affects their everyday life; their personal experiences as victims or witnesses of antisemitic incidents; their worries about becoming a victim of an antisemitic attack; and their actual experiences of discrimination because they are Jewish.    Two thirds of respondents (66 %) across the EU Member States surveyed consider antisemitism to be a problem. Three quarters of respondents (76 %) indicate that antisemitism has worsened during the previous five years in the country where they live.    Three quarters (75 %) of respondents consider online antisemitism to be a problem. Almost three quarters of respondents (73 %) said that antisemitism online has increased during the previous five years.    In the 12 months preceding the survey, 26 % of all respondents experienced an incident or incidents involving verbal insult or harassment because they were Jewish; 4 % experienced physical violence or threats of violence.    Almost half (46 %) of the respondents worried about becoming the victim of an antisemitic verbal insult or harassment in the subsequent 12 months, and one third (33 %) feared a physical attack in the same period.    Almost two thirds (64 %) of those who experienced physical violence or threats of violence did not report the most serious incident to the police or to any other organisation. Three quarters (76 %) of the respondents who experienced antisemitic harassment in the five years preceding the survey did not report the most serious incident. More than four in five (82 %) of those who said that they felt discriminated against because they are Jewish in the 12 months preceding the survey did not report the most serious incident to any organisation.    Close to one quarter (23 %) of the respondents said that they at least occasionally avoid visiting Jewish events or sites because they would not feel safe there, or on the way there, as a Jew. Over one quarter of all respondents (27 %) avoid certain places in their local area or neighbourhood at least occasionally because they would not feel safe there as a Jew.    One in 10 respondents experienced discrimination when looking for work or at work in the 12 months preceding the survey.    Over half of all survey respondents (57 %) heard or saw someone claiming that the Holocaust was a myth, or that it had been exaggerated, in the 12 months preceding the survey.    Large proportions of respondents said they had considered emigrating from the Member State they live in because they do not feel safe there as Jews.
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