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1. Communication, Affect, & Learning inthe ClassroomJason S. WrenchVirginia Peck RichmondJoan Gorham 2. Copyright © 2009 by Virginia Peck Richmond, Jason S. Wrench,…
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  • 1. Communication, Affect, & Learning inthe ClassroomJason S. WrenchVirginia Peck RichmondJoan Gorham
  • 2. Copyright © 2009 by Virginia Peck Richmond, Jason S. Wrench, and Joan GorhamAll rights reserved.Printed in the United States of America.This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No DerivativeWorks 3.0 United States License.To view a copy of this license, visit send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco,California, 94105, USA.All research measures utilized within this textbook are copyrighted by the measure’s originalcreators and used by permission within this text. Please contact the measure’s originalcreator for licensing information.1stEdition printed by Burgess Publishing, Edina, MN, in 1992 (ISBN: 0-80874-699-5)2ndEdition printed by Tapestry Press, Acton, MA, in 2001 (ISBN: 1-56888-548-2)
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSPreface i1. Teaching As a Communication Process 001The Instructional Communication ProcessThe TeacherThe ContentThe Instructional StrategyThe StudentThe Feedback/EvaluationThe Learning Environment/Instructional ContextKibler’s Model of InstructionThe ADDIE Model of Instructional Design2. Communicating With Instructional Objectives 017Why Some Teachers Resent ObjectivesThe Value of ObjectivesWhat Objectives Should Communicate3. Instructional Communication Strategies 028The Teacher As a SpeakerThe Teacher As a ModeratorThe Teacher As a TrainerThe Teacher As a ManagerThe Teacher As a Coordinator & Innovator4. Communication, Affect, and Student Needs 042Measuring Student AffectBasic Academic Needs of StudentsTraditional Interpersonal Need ModelsOutcomes of Meeting Student Needs5. Learning Styles 059What is Learning Style?
  • 4. Dimensions of Learning Style and Their AssessmentMatching, Bridging, and Style-Flexing6. Classroom Anxieties and Fears 055Communication ApprehensionReceiver ApprehensionWriting ApprehensionFear of TeacherEvaluation ApprehensionClassroom AnxietyProbable Causes of Classroom AnxietyCommunication Strategies for Reducing Classroom Anxiety7. Communication And Student Self-Concept 071Student Self-Concept: Some DefinitionsCharacteristics of the SelfDevelopment of Student Self-ConceptDimensions of Student Self-ConceptSelf-Concept and Academic AchievementEffects of Self-Concept on AchievementPoker Chip Theory of LearningCommunication Strategies for Nurturing and Building Realistic Student Self-Concept8. Instructional Assessment:Feedback, Grading, and Affect 090Defining the Assessment ProcessEvaluative FeedbackDescriptive FeedbackAssessment and AffectCompetition and Cooperation in Learning Environments9. Traditional and Mastery Learning Systems 110Traditional Education SystemsMastery LearningModified Mastery Learning
  • 5. 10. Student Misbehavior and Classroom Management 119Why Students MisbehaveCategories of Student BehaviorsStudents’ Effects on Affect in the ClassroomCommunication, Affect, and Classroom ManagementCommunication Techniques for Increasing or Decreasing Student Behavior11. Teacher Misbehaviors and Communication 142Why Teachers MisbehaveCommon Teacher MisbehaviorsImplications for the Educational Systems12. Teacher Self-Concept and Communication 152Dimensions of Teacher Self-ConceptDevelopment of Teacher Self-ConceptStrategies for Increasing Teacher Self-Concept13. Increasing Classroom Affect ThroughTeacher Communication Style 165Communicator Style ConceptTypes of Communicator StylesTeacher Communication StyleTeacher Communicator Behaviors That Build Affect14. Teacher Temperament in the Classroom 183Four Personality TypesPopular SanguinePerfect MelancholyPowerful CholericPeaceful PhlegmaticPersonality Blends15. Teacher Communication: Performance and Burnout 201Teaching: A Multifaceted Job
  • 6. Roles of an Instructional ManagerTeacher BurnoutSymptoms of Teacher BurnoutCauses of Teacher BurnoutMethods for Avoiding BurnoutMentoring to Prevent BurnoutAppendix A To Mrs. Russell:Without You This Never Would Have Happened 218Glossary 222Index 227
  • 7. Preface - iCommunication, Affect, & LearningIn the Classroom (3rdEd.)Communication, Affect, & Learning in the Classroom was original published byVirginia Richmond and Joan Gorham in 1992 and then updated a decade later by VirginiaRichmond, Jason S. Wrench, and Joan Gorham in 2001. As we enter into the revision of the3rdedition of the text, the basic content has not been drastically altered over the years.However, the research in Instructional Communication has clearly become more prominentand stronger. Probably the single most important development in the past two decades wasthe publication of the Handbook of Instructional Communication: Rhetorical and RelationalPerspectives edited by Mottet, Richmond, and McCroskey (2006). The purpose of thehandbook was to synthesize the first three decades of research in instructionalcommunication into a single volume that could help both researchers and instructorsunderstand the value of communication in the instructional process.Within the Handbook of Instructional Communication, Mottet, Frymier, and Beebe(2006) proposed the rhetorical/relational goal theory of instructional communication. Thereare two historic traditions examined within human communication: rhetorical and relational.“These two traditions also reflect two of the primary purposes we have whencommunicating: (1) to influence and/or achieve goals and (2) to develop and maintainrelationships” (Mottet et al., 2006, p. 266). Both teachers and students have rhetorical andrelational goals within the classroom setting. Students in the instructional context have bothacademic needs (ability to make good grades) and relational needs (feel affirmed as aperson). While not all students are driven by academic and relational needs the same way,meeting these needs is important for successful instructional outcomes. Teachers, on theother hand, are basically driven by the two primary communicative goals.First, teachers have specific rhetorical goals, therefore “teachers focus on influencingstudents to learn and understand the content as presented by the teacher” (Mottet et al.,2006, p. 267). Second, teachers have specific relational goals, or communicative goalsassociated with establishing specific types of relationships teachers want to have with theirstudents (Mottet & Beebe, 2006). Teachers who emphasize relational goals attempt tocreate closer relationships with their students; whereas, teachers who deemphasizerelational goals will attempt to create more relational distance between themselves andtheir students.
  • 8. Preface - iiHistorically, the two communicative goals described above (rhetorical & relational)have been described as instructor-centered (focus is on the content) or student-centered(focus is on the receiver); with instructor-centered and student-centered teaching existingon a continuum (Chall, 2000). Mottet et al. (2006) argue that the two teaching goals maynot be a dialectic of teaching, but instead are two basic goals that are relatively independentof each other. In fact, teachers who emphasize both rhetorical and relational goals in theclassrooms are probably the most likely to satisfy students’ academic and relational needswithin the classroom, which leads to both an increase in student motivation and positiveacademic outcomes. Furthermore, Mottet et al. argue that teachers who emphasize bothrelational and rhetorical goals will more “successfully utilize communication behaviors suchas immediacy, relevance, clarity, and compliance-gaining to achieve those goals are mostlikely to meet students’ relational and academic needs” (p. 269). If, however, a teacheremphasizes one goal over the other, then he or she is naturally limiting her or his ability tomeet all student relational and academic needs. While rhetorical and relational goals areimportant at all education levels, Mottet et al. predict that as “students mature and develop,their relational needs lessen, however, some students will always desire affirmation fromtheir teachers and need ego support to maintain motivation for the course” (p. 269). Inessence, as students age, the relational needs are probably not as important as theiracademic needs.When examining rhetorical and relational goals within the classroom, the necessity ofaffective learning becomes very obvious. As Mottet and Beebe (2006) noted, “Most studentsdo not come to the classroom inherently valuing what learning is prescribed. They must betaught how to value knowledge” (p. 9). In essence, affective learning is the foundation ofany kind of cognitive or psychomotor learning, so it should be the foundation of ourrhetorical and relational goals in the classroom as well. Too often teachers believe that theyare hired to teach a specific subject not get the students to like the subject. Unfortunately,research has consistently shown us that if students do not like the subject the level ofcognitive and psychomotor learning greatly diminishes. Wrench, McCroskey, and Richmond(2008) noted, “If an individual does not have positive affect for the content or teacher in aclassroom, it will be very hard for that person to learn [on a cognitive or behavioral level].For this reason, the authors of this text strongly believe that affective learning is by far themost important domain of learning because it is the foundation of the other two types oflearning” (p. 346). In essence, when learners do not have positive affect for either thecontent or the instructor the learning process is diminished. In fact, without positive affectthe goal of life-long learner that many educators ascribe to is impossible. McCroskey,
  • 9. Preface - iiiRichmond, and McCroskey (2006) noted, “Almost all of our long-term goals for educationare based on appropriate affective learning. Thus, if we focus all of our attention on short-term cognitive and psychomotor objectives, is it any wonder that our long-term objectivesare not met? (p. 54).Who Should Read This BookWhether you are a K-12 teacher, a university professor, or a workplace learning andperformance professional, this book will contain lots of useful information for yourinstructional practice. While there are clear differences in instructional design that arenecessary when differentiating between traditional students (kindergarten through highereducation) and adult learners (learning in the workplace), the basic instructionalcommunication process has been shown to be very consistent (Beebe, Mottet, & Roach,2004; McCroskey, Richmond, McCroskey, 2006).For the purposes of the current book, we will be primarily using the words “teacher”and “student” within the text. However, these two words could easily be substituted for aplethora of different terms: teacher (trainer, facilitator, etc.) or student (learner, trainee,etc.). At the same time, this text does not attempt to be an overview of everythingsomeone needs to know to be an effective teacher in either educational or workplacecontexts. There are many books out there that are specifically written to be overviews ofthe instructional process in different educational contexts. Instead, this book is designed todemonstrate how teachers can use communication to build an affective learningenvironment and thus increase cognitive and psychomotor learning in the classroom.Changes to the 3rdEditionFor the purposes of the 3rdEdition to this text, we have updated the research oninstructional communication within the text. Since the publication of the first edition of thisbook in 1992, the information related to instructional communication has consistentlygotten stronger. The new research and references will hopefully serve as both a guide forfurther reading and as a guide for your own instructional practices. Furthermore, we haveupdated content throughout the book to clearly represent the current nature ofcommunication, affect, and learning in the classroom. The text now represents over 30years of research in instructional communication.Next, we created a stronger balance between the traditional educational andworkplace learning implications of the material within this text. According to theCompetency Study conducted by the American Society for Training and Development in
  • 10. Preface - iv2004, one of the foundational characteristics of workplace learning and performance iseffective communication (Bernthal, Colteryahn, Davis, Naughton, Rothwell, & Wellins,2004). In fact, a great deal of the information contained within this book directly relates totwo of the major areas of expertise for workplace learning and performance professionals:designing learning and delivering training.Next, we added clear instructional objectives to the beginning of every chapter to aidyou in your reading. Furthermore, we have also included a glossary at the end of the text tohelp remember and learn key terms discussed throughout the textbook.Lastly, we have opted to make this text freely available to anyone who wishes tolearn more about communication, affect, and learning. In a world where textbooks arebecoming increasingly more expensive, the open access movement has become moreprominent. Open access refers to the free distribution of material via the Internet in such away that the material is accessible for all users to read and use. For this reason, we haveopted to utilize a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0license. You, as the reader, have free access to use this book in any fashion as long as youcite where the material came from and do not make any money off of the book itself. Feelfree to save this book to your hard drive, print off a copy for your own reading, or e-mail itto a friend who could also use this information. If you would prefer to purchase a physicalcopy of the text, you can purchase a copy at Physicalcopies are printed by Café Press and sent to you at the cost of printing and shipping.ConclusionWe hope that this book helps you foster a more effective and affective learningenvironment for you and your students. Please feel free to e-mail us and let us know howyou have utilized this book or any comments you have for future editions of this book.References and Recommended ReadingsBeebe, S. A., Mottet, T. P., & Roach, K. D. (2004). Training and development: Enhancingcommunication and leadership skills. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Bernthal, P. R., Colteryahn, K., Davis, P., Naughton, J., Rothwell, W. J., & Wellins, R.(2004). ASTD competency study: Mapping the future – New workplace learning andperformance competencies. Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.Chall, J. S. (2000). The academic achievement challenge: What really works in theclassroom? New York: Guilford.
  • 11. Preface - vMcCroskey, J. C., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, L. L. (2006). An introduction tocommunication in the classroom: The role of communication in teaching and training.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Mottet, T. P., & Beebe, S. A. (2006). Foundations of instructional communication. In, T. P.Mottet, V. P. Richmond, & J. C. McCroskey (Eds.), Handbook of instructionalcommunication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives (pp. 3-32). Boston: Allyn &Bacon.Mottet, T. P., Frymier, A., & Beebe, S. A. (2006). Theorizing about instructionalcommunication. In, T. P. Mottet, V. P. Richmond, & J. C. McCroskey (Eds.),Handbook of instructional communication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives (pp.255-282). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Mottet, T. P., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of instructionalcommunication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Wrench, J. S., McCroskey, J. C., & Peck-Richmond, V. (2008). Human communication ineveryday life: Explanations and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.About the AuthorsJason S. Wrench, Ed. D.JASON S. WRENCH (Ed.D., West Virginia University) is an assistant professor in theCommunication and Media department at the State University of New York at New Paltz.Dr. Wrench specializes in workplace learning and performance, or the intersection ofinstructional communication and organizational communication. His varied researchinterests include communibiology, computer-mediated communication, empirical researchmethods, humor, risk/crisis communication, and supervisor-subordinate interactions.Dr. Wrench has published five previous books (Intercultural Communication: Power inContext, Communication, Affect, and Learning in the Classroom, Principles of PublicSpeaking, Human Communication in Everyday Life: Explanations and Applications, andQuantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach). Furthermore,Dr. Wrench has published over 20 research articles that have appeared in various journals:Communication Quarterly, Communication Research Reports, Education, HumanCommunication, Journal of Homosexuality, Journal of Intercultural Communication,Southern Communication Journal, The Source: A Journal of Education, and The NACADAJournal (National Association of Campus Advising).
  • 12. Preface - viVirginia Peck Richmond, Ph.D.Dr. Richmond is the chair of the Communication Studies department at the University ofAlambama at Birmingham. Dr. Richmond is one of the most distinguished researchers andprofessors in the field of human communication. She has written over fifteen books ontopics including public speaking, nonverbal communication, instructional communication,and communication apprehension. Dr. Richmond has also authored or co-authored twenty-five book chapters and published more than twenty-five research articles where she was thesenior author.Dr. Richmond has also won numerous awards for her outstanding teaching and research,including an honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University System of West VirginiaBoard of Trustees and West Virginia University Institute of Technology. She has receiveddistinguished service awards from the World Communication Association and the EasternCommunication Association and is a past recipient of the Donald H. Ecroyd and CarolineDrummond-Ecroyd Teaching Excellence Award. She was also recognized as one of the topten publishing scholars in major communication journals from 1981 to 1985 and was stillranked in the top 15 most published scholars in major communication journals from 1996-2001 and has won numerous top paper and book awards.Joan Gorham, Ed.D.Dr. Gorham is the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the Eberly College of Arts andSciences at West Virginia University. She was the editor of the Annual Editions: Mass Mediafor McGraw-Hill’s Dushkin Publishing Group for over ten years. Dr. Gorham also wrote thebook Commercial Media and Classroom Teaching. Dr. Gorham has published over 30 peer-reviewed articles and numerous book chapters. As an instructor, Dr. Gorham has taught awide range of courses as a public school teacher, university professor, and professionalconsultant. On the graduate level, Dr. Gorham’s teaching has primarily centered oninstructional communication, nonverbal communication, and mediated communication.Dr. Gorham was the assistant editor of Adult Education: A Journal of Research and Theory,a publication of American Association for Adult and Continuing Education. Dr. Gorham waseditor of The Speech Communication Teacher, a publication of the National SpeechAssociation. Dr. Gorham has also sat on numerous editorial boards and served an outsidereviewer for many book projects.
  • 13. Chapter One - 1TEACHING AS A COMMUNICATION PROCESSChapter One Objectives1. Provide and explain the definition of human communication used in the textbook.2. Provide and explain the definition of learning used in the textbook.3. Provide and explain the definition of instructional communication used in thetextbook.4. Identify and define the thr
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