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Free Radical Substitution Edexcel

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In this tutorial we look free radical substitution: the three steps of initiation, propagation and termination plus further reactions and conditions that affect the products formed.
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   Nrmm Pgjeagl Qu`stetutecb   Kglcomcbglfgbms agb `m ncrhmj nrch glfgbms gbj es g `eo mxgh ngvcuretm. G kglcombcglfgbm es iust gb glfgbm wetk g kglcomb gttgakmj suak gs AK 1 Al. Ncr mxghplm9 Gll wm grm jcebo es su`stetutebo (swgppebo) g kyjrcomb gtch eb hmtkgbm ncr g Al gtch tc hgfm tkm kglcombcglfgbm (gbj KAl) usebo nrmm rgjeagls . Et es agllmj g nrmm rgjeagl su`stetutecb  rmgatecb.    ]ltrg-veclmt leokt (]^) es glwgys usmj eb tkes prcamss gbj es g `eo alum gs tc wkgt es ocebo cb. _kgt es g nrmm rgjeagl3 G nrmm rgjeagl es sehply gb gtch cr orcup wetk cbm  ubpgermj mlmatrcb. M lmatrcbs “lefm‘ tc `m  pgermj up. Gs rgjeagls kgvm gb ubpgermj mlmatrcb, tkmy grm vmry ubstg`lm cr rmgatevm. G nmw mxghplms cn rgjeagls (tkm `eo jct rmprmsmbts tkm ubpgermj mlmatrcb)9 Kcw ycu wretm cr jrgw tkmsm rgjeagls jcmsb―t hgttmr tcc huak, ycu agb kgvm tkm “jct‘   cb metkmr sejm cn tkm gtch cr orcup. Nrmm Pgjeagl Qu`stetutecb Zkm `ulf cn tkm qumstecbs grm ncausmj cb kcw ycu oc nrch rmgatgbts tc prcjuats. Zkmrm grm tkrmm stmps9 ebetegtecb  (stgrtebo tkm prcamss), prcpgogtecb  (g akgeb rmgatecb) gbj tmrhebgtecb  (mbjebo tkm prcamss). Zkm nerst gbj lgst stmps bcrhglly jcb―t agusm hgby prc`lmhs `ut  tkm prcpgogtecb stmp es bcrhglly wkmrm stujmbts oc wrcbo. Ebetegtecb Zc stgrt tkm prcamss, ycu bmmj tc ombmrgtm g nrmm rgjeagl. Zkes es jcbm usebo schmtkebo tkgt kgs g wmgf `cbj tkgt agb `m mgsely `rcfmb ebtc twc gtchs. Gs wm grm hgfebo g kglcombcglfgbm, g kglcomb es usmj (cntmb aklcrebm). ]^ (ultrgveclmt leokt) es usmj eb tkes stmp wkeak kgs mbcuok mbmroy tc `rmgf tkm wmgf `cbj.  Nessecb Zkes `cbj `rmgfebo prcamss es agllmj kchclytea nessecb  (nessecb iust hmgbs tc `rmgf) gs tkm prcjuats grm `ctk cn tkm sghm spmaems  e.m. twc rgjeagls.    Zkmy jc bct kgvm tc `m tkm sghm rgjeagl, iust twc rgjeagls. _kmb rgjeagls grm ebvclvmj et es glwgys kchclytea nessecb.    Eb mlmatrcpkelea gbj bualmcpkelea rmgatecbs `ctk mlmatrcbs oc tc tkm sghm gtch tc hgfm twc jennmrmbt  ecbs m.o. Al - gbj Al + , sc et es agllmj kmtmrclytea nessecb .    E kgvm usmj ‛kgln― grrcws tc skcw cbm mlmatrcb ocebo tc mgak aklcrebm gtch. Pmhmh`mr tkgt g ‛ bcrhgl ―  grrcw rmprmsmbts tkm hcvmhmbt cn twc mlmatrcbs gs eb mlmatrcpkelea gbj bualmcpkelea rmgatecbs. Et es cbly wetk rgjeagls tkgt ycu hcvm cbly cbm mlmatrcb. Trcpgogtecb Zkes es wkmrm tkm su`stetutecb tgfms plgam, eb twc stmps,  gbj es g akgeb rmgatecb . Eb prcpgogtecb ycu well hgfm tkm kglcombcglfgbm gbj glsc rmombmrgtm tkm Al rgjeagl. Qtmp 7 Zkm nerst stmp ebvclvms rmhcvebo g kyjrcomb nrch AK :  tc ombmrgtm g bmw rgjeagl (tkm AK 1  rgjeagl)9 Qtmp 0 Zkm smacbj stmp ombmrgtms tkm kglcombcglfgbm gbj rmombmrgtms tkm Al rgjeagl. Zkm Al rgjeagl es gatebo gs g agtglyst gbj es rmombmrgtmj gs agtglysts grm bmvmr usmj up eb tkm rmgatecb. Trcpgogtecb es tkmrmncrm g akgeb rmgatecb gbj agb `m rmpmgtmj9 Zkm hestgfm g lct cn stujmbts hgfm eb tkes smacbj stmp es tc tgfm gbctkmr aklcrebm rgjeagl gbj rmgat et wetk tkm AK 1  rgjeagl tc hgfm tkm kglcombcglfgbm. Zkes smmhs nebm eb prebaeplm `ut tkes wculj gatuglly `m gb mxghplm cn g tmrhebgtecb stmp gs tkmrm wculj `m bc rgjeagls lmnt. Qc ycu bmmj tc usm Al 0  kmrm gbj bct tkm aklcrebm rgjeagl!     Eb prcpgogtecb9 gjjebo g rgjeagl tc g bmutrgl hclmaulm, glwgys hgfms gbctkmr rgjeagl gbj bmutrgl hclmaulm. Trcpgogtecb glwgys ebvclvms g bmutrgl hclmaulm gbj g rgjeagl eb tkm rmgatgbts gbj prcjuats eb `ctk stmps. Zmrhebgtecb Zkm tmrhebgtecb stmp mbjs tkm wkclm prcamss gbj es vmry mgsy. Ucu grm tryebo tc stcp tkm rmgatecb sc ycu bmmj tc rmhcvm tkm rgjeagls . Gll ycu kgvm tc jc es tgfm gby twc rgjeagls  gbj iceb tkmh tcomtkmr tc mbj up wetk g bmutrgl  hclmaulm. Ncr mxghplm9 Nurtkmr rmgatecbs   Gbctkmr mxgh ngvcuretm es tc gsf g`cut nurtkmr rmgatecbs tkgt aculj caaur.   Eb cur mxghplm g`cvm wm hgjm AK 1 Al `y su`stetutebo g aklcrebm ncr g kyjrcomb. Gs wm kgvm tkrmm kyjrcombs rmhgebebo eb tkm prcjuat wm aculj jc tkm rmgatecb gogeb gbj swgp gbctkmr aklcrebm ncr gbctkmr kyjrcomb tc oevm AK 0 Al 0 . Gbj wm aculj fmmp ocebo ubtel gll tkm kyjrcombs kgvm `mmb rmplgamj, ncrhebo AKAl 1  gbj nebglly AAl : . Acbjetecbs _kmtkmr ycu omt nurtkmr su`stetutecb cr bct jmpmbjs cb tkm acbjetecbs9    en ycu usm mxamss hmtkgbm  ycu well cbly omt tkm g sebolm su`stetutmj prcjuat gs tkmrm es bct mbcuok aklcrebm tc rmgat nurtkmr.    en ycu usm mxamss aklcrebm  tkmb ycu grm vmry lefmly tc omt hulteplm prcjuats. Qejm prcjuats Ombmrgtecb cn hulteplm prcjuats aculj `m algssmj gs sejm prcjuats. Glsc, gby cn tkm prcjuats ombmrgtmj eb tkm tmrhebgtecb stmp. Ctkmr Qtgrtebo Hgtmregls Eb tkm mxghplm g`cvm wm stgrtmj wetk hmtkgbm gbj gjjmj aklcrebm. Zkes wgs tkm sehplmst mxghplm pcsse`lm. Eb mxgh qumstecbs tkmy cntmb akgbom tkm glfgbm gbj schmtehms tkm kglcomb. Zkmy aculj stgrt wetk gby glfgbm cr mvmb g kglcombcglfgbm. Zkmy heokt usm `rchebm ebstmgj cn aklcrebm.  Ucu kgvm tc steaf tc tkm sghm prebae plms. Et jcmsb―t hgttmr wkgt tkmy stgrt wetk, gll ycu grm jcebo es swgppebo cbm kyjrcomb gtch ncr cbm kglcomb gtch. Zkm tkrmm stmps grm stell tkm sghm.
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