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Freestyle Dance as a Language Code. English Version1. Sotiris.bekakos.phd.2014

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Freestyle dance and Linguistics
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        S   o   t    i   r    i   o   s    B   e    k   a    k   o   s     –      P    h    D     S   t   u    d   e   n   t     –      A   r    i   s   t   o   t   e    l    i   a   n    U   n    i   v   e   r   s    i   t   y  -    T    h   e   s   s   a    l   o   n    i    k        2   0   1   4     L   i  n  g  u   i  s   t   i  c  s  m  e  e   t  s   d  a  n  c  e  :   F  r  e  e  s   t  y   l  e    d  a  n  c  e  a  s  a   “   l  a  n  g  u  a  g  e  c  o   d  e   ”  A Comparative study on the relation between language and dance   Presented at: a) the 37th International Congress on Dance Research  –  CID UNESCO  –  Athens 2014 b) the 35th Annual Meeting of the Department of Linguistics  –  Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki GREECE  –  May 2014 sotomiros@gmail.com Tel. +302155158495   2 Introduction Through the study of dance, as a dance student, I realized that dance is a kind of human language, which is related with linguistic and anthropological elements. In this paper, the following dances are studied: 1.   Oriental dance 2.   Freestyle - Street dance The above mentioned dances are characterized by a freedom of movements. Through these movements, the dancer is able to express verbal and non verbal elements. In this paper, the srcin of the Oriental and Freestyle dance is also presented. This excursus points to the illustration of the dance terms, their etymology and significance that demonstrate the relationship between language and dance. Except from the presentation of Oriental and Freestyle dance, in this work the etymology of the terms « ρνξόο » and «dance» is also discussed. Method . The research of the relationship between « ρνξόο » and «dance» is carried out with the use of the philological method, the etymological method and the use of the Theory of Language Functions (Jakobson). Also the ethnographic method is used for the presentation of the history of the Oriental dance. Questions  I was asking myself for a long time, if there is a relationship between language and dance. Before the research, I formulated the following questions. Is it possible to study the relationship between language and dance? Is dance a form of language with its own rules? Which is the character of language and dance and how can influence the people‘s character through time? Can linguistics be a useful instrument for dance research? Language  –   Dance - Communication : is the triad that forms the sense of civilization and a people ‘ s character. Through language man can express his actions and his ideas, forming attitudes, beliefs and standards, while through dance expresses feelings, ideas and metaphors, improving in this way soul and body.  Dance is a text ― in motion ‖ , a ritual. Collective memory, customs and traditions, history and national identity characterize dance history.   3 Language and Dance: one relationship  –   many aspects Language and dance constitute the basic elements of the human civilization. All ancient civilizations attached great importance to the dance as a ritual or artistic kind. During the prehistoric period, language and dance were used as media of primitive people and had purely ceremonial - practical  character (satisfaction of the basic human needs, communication with God).   4 In all ancient civilizations, dance played an important role. In the Middle East, Egypt, and ancient Greece and in ancient Italy, dancing characterizes every form of social and religious expression was the representation through shapes and movements of the thoughts and desires of man. Dance was a complement of linguistic expression which accompanied the rituals of transition '  (rites of passage) 1 . The rituals of transition covered all the expressions of social life. Picture 1. A red figured crater  –   shaped bell (5 th cent. b. C.), that illustrates a scene of „phlyakes‟  (gr. θλύακερ , an ancient Greek comedy of the Magna Graecia). From the tomb num.2 of the settlement of Santa Maria del Casale, near Pisticci  –   Matera province  –   Basilicata region - Italy. The movements of the dancers look like the movements of the modern dance. 1  The term «rites de passage» refers to linguistic and anthropological research, in order to express the changes of a person during his life, i.e. the transition from a socio - cultural situation to another. Furthermore, the term may indicate changes associated with the cycle of life and changes in social roles (e.g. the passage from high school to university, graduating from university, doctorate and others). This phenomenon is of great importance for the individual himself, for the relationship between the individual and the social group but also for the cohesion of the social group. Arnold Van Gennep (1873  –   1957) a French linguist and anthropologist, introduced for the first time the term ― rite de passage ‖  in linguistics and anthropology. Cf. Van Gennep, A. 1909.  Les rites de passage : étude systematique . Paris, E. Nourry.
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