# Gas Gathering and Transportation

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Gas Field Engineering course.
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10/16/20141 GAS FIELD ENGINEERING Gas Gathering and Transportation 1 CONTENTS 3.1Introduction3.2Pipeline Design3.3 Reynolds’ Number  3.4Relative Roughness3.5Friction Factors3.6Pipeline Equations (Weymouth, Panhandle, Modified Panhandle, Clinedist )3.7Series, Parallel, and Looped Lines 2 LESSON LEARNING OUTCOME  At the end of the session, students should be able to: ã  Apply pipeline flow equations ã Design gas transportation, gathering, and distribution systems. 3  10/16/20142 3.1 INTRODUCTION ã Transmissionofnaturalgastoconsumerbedividedintothreedistinctpipelineunits: gatheringsystem , maintrunklinetransportationsystem ,and distributionsystem . ã Focusesondesignandoperationofnaturalgaspipelinesinonshoreandoffshoregasfields. 4 3.2 Pipeline Design ã Factors to be considered in the design of long-distance gas pipe-lines.  the volume and composition of the gas to be transmitted,  the length of the line  the type of terrain to be crossed  maximum elevation of the route Note: Pipe line must be larger to accommodate the greater volume of gas. 5 3.2 Pipeline Design  Severaldesignsareusuallymadesothatthe economicalone canbeselected.  Maximumcapacityofapipelineislimitedby higher transmissionpressures and strongmaterials .  Foreconomicoperation,bettertopreservefullpipelineutilization. 6  10/16/20143 3.2.1 Sizing Pipelines ã Capacity ofgastransmissioniscontrolled mainlybyitssize . ã Complex equations havebeendevelopedforsizingnaturalgaspipelinesinvariousflowconditions. o TheWeymouthequation o ThePanhandleequation o TheModified-Panhandleequation ã Byusingtheseequations, variouscombinationsofpipediameter  and wallthickness foradesired rate ofgasthroughoutcanbecalculated. 7 3.3 Friction Factor   Friction losses: o Internal losses due to viscosity effects o losses due to the roughness of the inner wall of the pipeline  Friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number and of the relative roughness of pipe. N Re = Reynolds Number e = absolute roughness of pipeD = diameter of pipe  f =  f ( N  Re  , e  D  ) 8 Equationthatrelates lostwork per  unitlength ofpipeandtheflowvariablesis 3.3 Friction Factor  9  10/16/20144 Reynolds Number  ã Reynoldsnumber( N  Re  )isdefinedasthe ratio offluid momentumforce to viscousshearforce . ã TheReynoldsnumbercanbeexpressedasa dimensionless groupdefinedas 10 Reynolds Number  Reynoldsnumber  isusedasa parameter  todistinguishbetween flowregimes . Flow TypeN Re , smooth pipesLaminar CriticalTransitionTurbulent< 20002000  – 30003000 -4000> 4000 11   Reynolds Number  ã For all practical purposes , the Reynolds number for natural gas flow problems may be expressed as 12 (11.8)

Jul 23, 2017

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Jul 23, 2017
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