of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
  Geology doi: 10.1130/G19941.1 2004;32;41-44 Geology   M.A. Elburg, M.J. van Bergen and J.D. Foden  collision sector of the Sunda-Banda arc, IndonesiaSubducted upper and lower continental crust contributes to magmatism in the   Email alerting services cite this article to receive free e-mail alerts when new  Subscribe  to subscribe to click  Permission request  to contact GSA  viewpoint. Opinions presented in this publication do not reflect official positions of the Society.positions by scientists worldwide, regardless of their race, citizenship, gender, religion, or politicalarticle's full citation. GSA provides this and other forums for the presentation of diverse opinions and articles on their own or their organization's Web site providing the posting includes a reference to thescience. This file may not be posted to any Web site, but authors may post the abstracts only of their unlimited copies of items in GSA's journals for noncommercial use in classrooms to further education andto use a single figure, a single table, and/or a brief paragraph of text in subsequent works and to make GSA,employment. Individual scientists are hereby granted permission, without fees or further requests to Copyright not claimed on content prepared wholly by U.S. government employees within scope of their Notes Geological Society of America  on September 15, 2013geology.gsapubs.orgDownloaded from     2004 Geological Society of America. For permission to copy, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, or Geology;  January 2004; v. 32; no. 1; p. 41–44; DOI 10.1130/G19941.1; 3 figures; 1 table; Data Repository item 2004005. 41 Subducted upper and lower continental crust contributes tomagmatism in the collision sector of the Sunda-Bandaarc, Indonesia M.A. Elburg *  Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Geochemistry Division, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany, andDepartment of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia M.J. van Bergen  Faculty of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands J.D. Foden  Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia ABSTRACTPb isotopes in igneous rocks from the Banda-Sunda arc show extreme along-arc vari-ations, which correspond to major lithologic changes in crustal components entering thesubduction system. An increase in  206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios toward the zone of collision with theAustralian continent reflects input of subducted upper-crustal material; maximum valuescoincide with anomalously radiogenic  3 He/  4 He ratios that have been earlier attributed tothe involvement of the continental margin. The collision zone is further characterized by 208 Pb/  204 Pb ratios that are higher for a given  207 Pb/  204 Pb value than observed in thenoncollisional sectors, and in the central part of the collision zone, the  206 Pb/  204 Pb ratiosare lower than the most radiogenic values in the adjacent areas. We propose that thesePb isotope signatures reflect input of subducted lower crust, mobilized as a result of slab-window formation during arc-continent collision. Variations in Pb isotopes in the collisionzone are solely determined by variations in the nature and proportions of different sub-ducted components. The Pb isotope arrays in the noncollision area may be dominated byslab components as well and could reflect mixing between subducted oceanic crust andentrained sediments, rather than between subarc mantle and subducted sediments. Ournew interpretation of the Indonesian Pb isotope data does not call for involvement of ocean-island basalt (OIB)–type mantle or Australian subcontinental lithospheric mantle,as has been suggested previously.Keywords:  subduction, collision, Pb-206/Pb-204, Indonesia, Sunda-Banda arc. Figure 1. Map of Sunda-Banda arc with its volcanoes. BT—Batu Tara; PA—Pantar;AL—Alor;LI—Lirang; WE—Wetar; RO—Romang; DA—Damar; TE—Teon; NI—Nila; SE—Serua; MA—Manuk; BA—Banda. DSDP 262—Deep Sea Drilling Project Hole 262. Track III—dredge sed-iments. Inset maps show enlargements of Flores, Adonara, and Lomblen islands andSumbawa island. Dashed lines indicate the boundaries of the collision area, solid lines thedepth to the Benioff zone. INTRODUCTION The Indonesian Sunda-Banda arc is theworld’s foremost example of an active arc-continent collision zone. The progressive col-lision of the Australian continent has broughtsubduction and accompanying magmatism inthe Pantar Strait–Romang area to a halt (Fig.1). Active volcanism in the Sunda arc extendsfrom Sumatra in the northwest to Pantar in theeast and from Damar to Banda in the northeastalong the Banda arc. Since 3 Ma (Abbott andChamalaun, 1981), cessation of volcanism hasspread from Wetar to the neighboring islands,but arc-continent collision probably started asearly as 8 m.y. ago (Berry and McDougall,1986).Trends in Pb isotope data from the Sunda-Banda arc have previously been modeled asrepresenting mixtures of subarc mantle andsubducted continental material (Stolz et al.,1990; van Bergen et al., 1992, 1993; Vroon etal., 1993; Hoogewerff et al., 1997; Elburg etal., 2002; Turner et al., 2003). This modelingcontrasts with other interpretations of Pb iso-topes in arc volcanic rocks, which regard Pbto be solely a tracer of the slab component,with or without entrained sediments (Miller etal., 1994).Our compilation of existing Pb isotope dataon the entire along-arc section from Bali toBanda, in combination with new results fromthe extinct sector and published He isotopedata (Hilton and Craig, 1989; Hilton et al.,1992; Gasparon et al., 1994), shows that pre-vious interpretations of Pb isotopes in theSunda-Banda arc need to be revised and thatthe Pb isotope signatures are entirely domi-nated by subducted material of different crust-al derivation. Variations in the relative contri-butions of distinct subducted componentsclearly correspond to spatial changes in thesubduction-collision regime. ALONG-ARC VARIATION IN Pb ANDHe ISOTOPES In order to minimize potential effects of shallow-level contamination, we have restrict-ed our evaluation to the area between Bali and *E-mail:  on September 15, 2013geology.gsapubs.orgDownloaded from   42 GEOLOGY, January 2004 TABLE 1. CONSTITUENTS OF SAMPLE GROUPINGS USED IN FIGURES 2 AND 3West noncollisional Batur, Agung (Bali), Rinjani (Lombok), Wai Sano, Ebulobo, Inerie, Iya, Rokatenda(Flores)Sumbawa high-K Sangenges, Soromundi, Tambora, Sangeang Api (Sumbawa)Sumbawa low-K Intrusive rocks of Batu Hijau, dikes, lahars (Sumbawa, 4–2 Ma)West collisional Egon, Lewotobi, Mandiri (Flores), Boleng (Adonara), Lewotolo, Werung, Kedang(Lomblen), Batu Tara, Pantar Strait volcanoes, Alor central and northCentral collisional Alor south, Lirang, Wetar, RomangEast collisional Damar, Teon, NilaEast noncollisional Banda, Manuk, Serua Figure 2.  206 Pb/ 204 Pb, gamma 8/4 (deviationfrom line  208 Pb/ 204 Pb  15.84  3.5  207 Pb/ 204 Pb) and R c /R a  with distance east from Balialong arc. See Table 1 for volcanoes and is-lands that belong to each group. Data fromHilton and Craig (1989), Hilton et al. (1992),Gasparon et al. (1994), Stolz et al. (1990),vanBergen et al. (1992), Vroon et al. (1993), Hoo-gewerff et al. (1997), Hoogewerff (1999), El-burg et al. (2002), Turner et al. (2003), andElburg and Foden (see GSA Data RepositoryTable DR2; see text footnote one). the Banda archipelago where volcanoes are lo-cated on oceanic crust, thus excluding the is-lands of Sumatra and Java. The arc has beendivided into five sectors, which are, from westto east: west noncollisional, west collisional(partially inactive), central collisional (inac-tive), east collisional, and east noncollisional(Table 1). For the active sectors, data fromQuaternary volcanic rocks were used, apartfrom Sumbawa (west noncollisional) wheresome 2–4 Ma low-K intrusive and extrusiveunits were included, which have been distin-guished from the younger samples in Figures2 and 3. Analyzed samples from Lirang andWetar are presumed to have ages between 7and 3 Ma on the basis of age dating by Abbottand Chamalaun (1981) and Honthaas et al.(1998). Rb-Sr mineral isochrons give ages forsamples from Alor from 2.5 to 1.3 Ma, 1.7Ma for a single sample from Romang, and lessthan 1 Ma for the Pantar Strait volcanoes(GSA Data Repository Table DR1 1 ).The first-order control on the variation inPb and He isotope characteristics is the loca-tion along the arc, and values for  206 Pb/  204 Pb,gamma 8/4 (see the next section), and R c  /R a ratios show strikingly similar trends. The 206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios increase toward the colli-sion sector (Fig. 2) and reach a maximum onAlor’s northeast coast (19.6). These high 206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios are not maintained through-out the extinct sector: samples from the southcoast of Alor and from Lirang, Wetar, and Ro-mang have  206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios between 18.9and 19.2. The ratios increase again toward theeastern active islands of the Banda arc (Dam-ar, Teon, and Nila), to sharply fall toward low 206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios in Banda, similar to thoseseen in Bali and Lombok. Along-arc changesin Pb isotopes are not limited to the absoluteratios, but also to the  208 Pb/  204 Pb ratio relativeto the  207 Pb/  204 Pb ratio. We have defined a‘‘baseline’’ in the  208 Pb/  204 Pb versus  207 Pb/  204 Pb diagram (Fig. 3), consisting of Bali,Lombok, and Banda (on which line volcanicrocks from Java and Sumatra also plot; Turner 1 GSA Data Repository item 2004005, Rb-Sr datafor Pantar Strait samples and Pb isotope data, is avail-able online at,or on request from or Doc-uments Secretary, GSA, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO80301-9140, USA. and Foden, 2001), for which the equation is 208 Pb/  204 Pb    15.84    3.5    207 Pb/  204 Pb.We denote the vertical deviation from thisbaseline ( 208 Pb/  204 Pb measured    208 Pb/  204 Pb cal-culated ) as ‘‘gamma 8/4,’’ analogous to the delta7/4 and delta 8/4 values defined by Hart(1984). The variation in gamma 8/4 is similarto that seen in the  206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios. He iso-tope studies by Hilton and Craig (1989), Hil-ton et al. (1992), and Gasparon et al. (1994)show that R c  /R a  ratios (   3 He/  4 He sample   3 He/  4 He air ) decrease from mid-oceanic-ridgebasalt (MORB)–like values of 8    1 in Java,Bali, and Sumbawa to values as low as 0.0075(Fig. 2), typical of continental crust, in thecollision area. The westernmost center withrelatively low R c  /R a  values is Iya at the vol-canic front in central Flores. Kelimutu, locatedbehind the volcanic front between Iya andEgon, both with crustal R c  /R a  values, shows aMORB-like value of 6, indicating the addi-tional across-arc control on He isotope sys-tematics. The low R c  /R a  values persist east-ward all the way up to the Banda islands,which have values of 3.6. These ‘‘continental’’R c  /R a  values have been interpreted to reflect acontribution from subducted continental crustin the region. Hence, the area of involvementof subducted continental crust extends fromthe Banda islands to central Flores. This is asomewhat larger area than the area with con-trasting Pb isotope ratios, because Iya andBanda still have the low gamma 8/4 ratios thatcharacterize the low- to medium-K rocks of the noncollisional zone to the west of Sumbawa.A second-order influence on the Pb isotoperatios is seen on Sumbawa, where the recentshoshonitic to high-K volcanoes have higher 206 Pb/  204 Pb and gamma 8/4 values than thesurrounding volcanoes or the 4–2 Ma low-Ksamples from this island. Pb ISOTOPE ARRAYS The clearest distinction between the differ-ent geographic groups is obtained in a  208 Pb/  204 Pb versus  207 Pb/  204 Pb diagram (Fig. 3). The‘‘noncollision’’ samples form an array be-tween Indian mid-oceanic-ridge basalt (I-MORB) and dredge sediments from the fore-arc, whereas those from the collision sectorvary between values for north Australian riversediments (taken as a proxy for the local Aus-tralian upper crust), and the field for Indianoceanic-island basalt (I-OIB). This has beenthe basis for previous workers to model vol-canic rocks from the collision zone as mix-tures between subarc mantle with OIB-type Pbisotope characteristics and Australian uppercrust (Stolz et al., 1990; Hoogewerff et al.,1997; Elburg et al., 2002). However, inspec-tion of all available data for the Banda-Sundaarc shows that samples from the collision zoneare characterized by both low  3 He/  4 He ratiosand high gamma 8/4 values, typical for I-OIBand Australian crust. Because the He isotopevalues have been explained by subduction of the leading edge of the Australian continent(Hilton et al., 1992), the Australian uppercrust is likely to represent the radiogenic endof the collisional Pb isotope array. It is, how-ever, difficult to argue that in the same sector  on September 15, 2013geology.gsapubs.orgDownloaded from   GEOLOGY, January 2004 43 Figure 3.  208 Pb/ 204 Pb vs.  207 Pb/ 204 Pb for (A) Sunda-Banda volcanoes compared to (B) Indianoceanic-island basalt (I-OIB), Indian mid-oceanic-ridge basalt (I-MORB), Christmas Island(Hart, 1988), north Australian sediment (Elburg et al., 2002), and dredge sediments (Vroonet al., 1995). where upper-crustal material is introduced, thesubarc mantle wedge would have an OIB-likePb isotope signature as opposed to MORB-like characteristics outside the collision area.Low Nb/Zr ratios of front-arc collisional vol-canoes (Hoogewerff et al., 1997) also supportthe argument against involvement of a typicalOIB source (Elburg et al., 2002). It is there-fore more likely that the less radiogenic Pbend member of the ‘‘collisional lavas’’ is alsointroduced by the collision process and that itssource is located within the Australian litho-sphere. Compared to the Australian uppercrust, this end member has a similarly hightime-integrated Th/U ratio, but a lower U/Pbratio. The only plausible source for this com-ponent is the Australian lower crust, whichtypically has lower U/Pb ratios than the uppercrust (Rudnick and Goldstein, 1990). Pb iso-tope data of possible lower-crustal compo-nents in northwest Australia are not available,but those from granites formed by melting of the lower crust in western Australia (Bickle etal., 1989) show extreme Pb isotope heteroge-neity and encompass the unradiogenic end of the high gamma 8/4 array (not shown). As 3 He/  4 He ratios are the same for upper andlower crustal materials, the low  3 He/  4 He ratiosin this segment are consistent with the in-volvement of two types of crustal materials.The suggested involvement of the Australiansubcontinental lithospheric mantle (Varne,1985), exemplified by northwest Australiankimberlites, is unlikely, as it does not have theappropriate Pb isotope composition (Nelson etal., 1986). DISCUSSION We interpret the parallel spatial behavior of Pb and He isotopes along the Sunda-Bandaarc as signifying the dominant importance of the subducted slab on these isotopic systems.Within the collision zone, the array of Pb iso-topes reflects variation in the proportion of ra-diogenic Australian upper crust and less ra-diogenic Australian lower crust. The former ischaracterized by high  206 Pb/  204 Pb and is dom-inant in the western and eastern parts. The lat-ter source with lower  206 Pb/  204 Pb is dominantin the central collision zone. We propose thatthe increased contribution of lower crust in thecentral sector is a direct result of the collisionevent. In this area, the leading oceanic part of the slab may have started to detach from theAustralian continent (McCaffrey et al., 1985;Charlton, 1991), causing upwelling of hot as-thenospheric material and melting of the ex-posed continental domain. Detachment of theoceanic part of the slab from the continent hasbeen modeled to be the inevitable result of arc-continent collision (Davies and vonBlanckenburg, 1995; Van de Zedde and Wor-tel, 2001). Upwelling of hot asthenospherethrough this slab window causes melting of the lower crust, whereas ‘‘normal’’ subductionof continental crust may at best only causemelting of upper-crustal material. The crustalmelts interact with the mantle, and partialmelting of this metasomatized mantle causesthe observed magmatism. The isotopic diver-sity in the collision zone is consistent with theinvolvement of melts from diverse small-scaledomains in the partially subducted continentalcrustal source.Our interpretation—that the array of Pb iso-tope data from the collision area represents amixture of subducted components only—mayimply that the Pb isotope arrays seen outsidethis sector also reflect mixing between severalsubducted components, rather than mixing be-tween MORB-type mantle and subducted sed-iments, as proposed by other researchers, e.g.,Turner and Foden (2001). If so, the nonradi-ogenic Pb component of the samples that plotin between the fields for MORB and dredgesediments is likely to be derived from the sub-ducted basalts of the oceanic slab, and the ra-diogenic component from subducted continen-tal material, equivalent to sediments from thefront of the arc (Vroon et al., 1995). The in-crease in  206 Pb/  204 Pb ratios toward the colli-sion sector of the arc points toward theincreasing importance of subducted upper-crustal material with proximity to the locus of collision (cf. van Bergen et al., 1993).The Quaternary high-K volcanism on Sum-bawa (Foden and Varne, 1980) does not fitinto the trend of unidirectionally increasinggamma 8/4 toward the collision zone, but hashigher gamma 8/4 than neighboring volcanicislands or older (4–2 Ma), low-K samplesfrom the same area. This isotopic signaturemust reflect the introduction of a differentsubducted component into the subarc environ-ment. Varne (1985) proposed that this newcomponent was derived from the island of Sumba, but tectonic reconstructions (Hall,2002; Rutherford et al., 2001) and paleomag-netic (Wensink, 1994) and Nd-Pb isotope data(Vroon et al., 1996) suggest that Sumba hasmigrated from a more northern position nearor on the Sundaland plate, rather than from asouthern, Australian position. It is thereforehighly unlikely that Sumba was ever part of the subducting Australian plate and couldhave contributed material to the source of thehigh-K volcanic rocks.We propose that, instead of continental lith-osphere, the material that was introduced inthe Sumbawa subarc mantle was OIB-typeoceanic crust. The absence of a trace elementOIB-type signature in the high-K volcanicrocks (such as low Ba/Nb ratios; Varne, 1985)reflects the immobility of high field strengthelements like Nb and Zr during slab dehydra-tion (Stolz et al., 1996), whereas Pb is a highlymobile element. The Pb isotope data for theSumbawa Quaternary volcanoes overlap withthose of the nearest OIB-type crust of Christ-mas Island (Hart, 1988), and OIB-type crustis common in the Indian Ocean domain (Weisand Frey, 1996). It is therefore conceivablethat the Pb isotope array of the Sumbawahigh-K magmatism reflects mixing betweenIndian OIB-type crust and entrainedsediments. CONCLUSIONS Our compilation of Pb data along theSunda-Banda arc shows that the samples fromthe arc-continent collision area have higher 208 Pb/  204 Pb ratios for their  207 Pb/  204 Pb ratiosthan neighboring volcanoes. This isotopic sig-nature has previously been interpreted as mix-ing between a mantle component with Pb iso-tope ratios similar to I-OIB, and Australiansubducted continental material. We propose  on September 15, 2013geology.gsapubs.orgDownloaded from   44 GEOLOGY, January 2004 instead that the Pb isotope arrays show mixingbetween subducted materials only, which, inthe case of the collision zone, are the Austra-lian upper and lower crust. The main argu-ments for this new interpretation are: (1) Highgamma 8/4 values are geographically boundto the collision zone. (2) High gamma 8/4 val-ues correlate with He isotopes, which pointtoward involvement of continental crust. (3)Geophysical models predict influx of heat byasthenospheric upwelling induced by slab de-tachment. (4) There is no trace element evi-dence for the involvement of an OIB-typesource.We therefore reinterpret the observed Pbisotope data arrays as reflecting mixing be-tween Australian upper and lower crust. Out-side the collision area, the Pb isotope arraysprobably reflect a mixture between subductedMORB-type crust and sediments, whereas thedata for the high-K volcanic rocks from Sum-bawa can be explained by mixing betweensubducted OIB-type crust and sediments. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Elburg acknowledges support from an AustralianResearch Council Postdoctoral Fellowship and aEuropean Union Marie Curie Fellowship. PieterVroon is thanked for providing unpublished data forBatur volcano and Wetar. REFERENCES CITED Abbott, M.J., and Chamalaun, F.H., 1981, Geochro-nology of some Banda arc volcanics,  in  Wir-yosuyono, S., ed., Geology and tectonics of eastern Indonesia: Bandung, Geological Re-search and Development Centre [Bandung]Special Publication, p. 253–268.Berry, R.F., and McDougall, I., 1986, Interpretationof   40 Ar/  39 Ar and K/Ar dating evidence fromthe Aileu Formation, East Timor, Indonesia:Chemical Geology, v. 59, p. 43–58.Bickle, M.J., Bettenay, L.F., Chapman, H.J., Groves,D.I., McNaughton, N.J., Campbell, I.H., andde Laeter, J.R., 1989, The age and srcin of younger granitic plutons of the Shaw batholithin the Archaean Pilbara block, Western Aus-tralia: Contributions to Mineralogy and Pe-trology, v. 101, p. 361–376.Charlton, T.R., 1991, Postcollision extension in arc-continent collision zones, eastern Indonesia:Geology, v. 19, p. 28–31.Davies, J.H., and von Blanckenburg, F., 1995, Slabbreakoff: A model of lithosphere detachmentand its test in the magmatism and deformationof collisional orogens: Earth and PlanetaryScience Letters, v. 129, p. 85–102.Elburg, M.A., van Bergen, M.J., Hoogewerff, J.,Foden, J., Vroon, P.Z., Zulkarnain, I., and Na-sution, A., 2002, Geochemical trends acrossan arc-continent collision zone: Magma sourc-es and slab-wedge transfer processes belowthe Pantar Strait volcanoes (Indonesia): Geo-chimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 66,p. 2771–2789.Foden, J.D., and Varne, R., 1980, The petrology andtectonic setting of Quaternary–Recent volca-nic centres of Lombok and Sumbawa, Sundaarc: Chemical Geology, v. 30, p. 201–226.Gasparon, M., Hilton, D.R., and Varne, R., 1994,Crustal contamination processes traced by he-lium isotopes: Examples from the Sunda arc,Indonesia: Earth and Planetary Science Let-ters, v. 126, p. 15–22.Hall, R., 2002, Cenozoic geological and plate tec-tonic evolution of southeast Asia and thesouthwest Pacific: Computer-based recon-structions, model and animations: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 20, p. 353–431.Hart, S.R., 1984, A large-scale isotope anomaly inthe Southern Hemisphere mantle: Nature,v. 309, p. 753–757.Hart, S.R., 1988, Heterogeneous mantle domains:Signatures, genesis and mixing chronologies:Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 90,p. 273–296.Hilton, D.R., and Craig, H., 1989, A helium isotopetransect along the Indonesian archipelago: Na-ture, v. 342, p. 906–908.Hilton, D.R., Hoogewerff, J.A., van Bergen, M.J.,and Hammerschmidt, K., 1992, Mapping mag-ma sources in the east Sunda–Banda arcs, In-donesia: Constraints from helium isotopes:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 56,p. 851–859.Honthaas, C., Re´hault, J.-P., Maury, C., Bellon, H.,He´mond, C., Malod, J.-A., Corne´e, J.-J., Vil-leneuve, M., Cotten, J., Burhanuddin, S., Guil-lou, H., and Arnaud, N., 1998, A Neogeneback-arc srcin for the Banda Sea basins: Geo-chemical and geochronological constraintsfrom the Banda ridges (east Indonesia): Tec-tonophysics, v. 298, p. 297–317.Hoogewerff, J.A., 1999, Magma genesis and slab-wedge interaction across an island arc–continent collision zone, east Sunda arc, In-donesia [Ph.D. thesis]: Utrecht, Germany,Utrecht University, 199 p.Hoogewerff, J.A., van Bergen, M.J., Vroon, P.Z.,Hertogen, J., Wordel, R., Sneyers, A., Nasu-tion, A., Varekamp, J.C., Moens, H.L.E., andMouchel, D., 1997, U-series, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopeand trace-element systematics across an activeisland arc–continent collision zone: Implica-tions for element transfer at the slab-wedgeinterface: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta,v. 61, p. 1057–1072.McCaffrey, R., Molnar, P., Roecker, S.W., and Joy-odiwwiryo, Y.S., 1985, Microearthquake seis-micity and fault plane solutions related to arc-continent collision in the eastern Sunda arc,Indonesia: Journal of Geophysical Research,v. 90, p. 4511–4528.Miller, D.M., Goldstein, S.L., and Langmuir, C.H.,1994, Cerium/lead and lead isotope ratios inarc magmas and the enrichment of lead in thecontinents: Nature, v. 368, p. 514–520.Nelson, D.R., McCulloch, M.T., and Sun, S.-S.,1986, The srcins of ultrapotassic rocks as in-ferred from Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes: Geochim-ica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 50, p. 231–245.Rudnick, R.L., and Goldstein, S.L., 1990, The Pbisotopic compositions of lower crustal xeno-liths and the evolution of lower crustal Pb:Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 98,p. 192–207.Rutherford, E., Burke, K., and Lytwyn, J., 2001,Tectonic history of Sumba Island, Indonesia,since the Late Cretaceous and its rapid escapeinto the forearc in the Miocene: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 19, p. 453–479.Stolz, A.J., Varne, R., Davies, G.R., Wheller, G.E.,and Foden, J.D., 1990, Magma source com-ponents in an arc-continent collision zone: TheFlores-Lembata sector, Sunda arc, Indonesia:Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology,v. 105, p. 585–601.Stolz, A.J., Jochum, K.P., Spettel, B., and Hofmann,A.W., 1996, Fluid- and melt-related enrich-ment in subarc mantle: Evidence from Nb/Tavariations in island-arc basalts: Geology,v. 24, p. 587–590.Turner, S., and Foden, J., 2001, U, Th and Ra dis-equilibria, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and trace el-ement variations in Sunda arc lavas: Predom-inance of a subducted sediment component:Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology,v. 142, p. 43–57.Turner, S., Foden, J., George, R., Evans, P., Varne,R., Elburg, M.A., and Jenner, G., 2003, Ratesand processes of potassic magma evolutionbeneath Sangeang Api volcano, east Sundaarc, Indonesia: Journal of Petrology, v. 44,p. 491–515.van Bergen, M.J., Vroon, P.Z., Varekamp, J.C., andPoorter, R.P.E., 1992, The srcin of the potas-sic rock suite from Batu Tara volcano (eastSunda arc, Indonesia): Lithos, v. 21,p. 261–282.van Bergen, M.J., Vroon, P.Z., and Hoogewerff,J.A., 1993, Geochemical and tectonic relation-ships in the east Indonesian arc-continent col-lision region: Implications for the subductionof the Australian passive margin: Tectono-physics, v. 223, p. 97–116.Van de Zedde, D.M.A., and Wortel, M.J.R., 2001,Shallow slab detachment as a transient sourceof heat at midlithospheric depths: Tectonics,v. 20, p. 868–882.Varne, R., 1985, Ancient subcontinental mantle: Asource for K-rich orogenic volcanics: Geolo-gy, v. 13, p. 405–408.Vroon, P.Z., van Bergen, M.J., White, W.M., andVarekamp, J.C., 1993, Sr-Nd-Pb isotope sys-tematics of the Banda arc, Indonesia: Com-bined subduction and assimilation of continen-tal material: Journal of Geophysical Research,v. 98, p. 22,349–22,366.Vroon, P.Z., van Bergen, M.J., Klaver, G.J., andWhite, W.M., 1995, Strontium, neodymium,and lead isotopic and trace-element signaturesof the east Indonesian sediments: Provenanceand implication for Banda arc magma genesis:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59,p. 2573–2598.Vroon, P.Z., van Bergen, M.J., and Forde, E.J.,1996, Pb and Nd isotope constraints on theprovenance of tectonically dispersed continen-tal fragments in east Indonesia,  in  Blundell,D., ed., Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia:Geological Society [London] Special Publi-cation 106, p. 445–453.Weis, D., and Frey, F.A., 1996, Role of the Kergue-len plume in generating the eastern IndianOcean seafloor: Journal of Geophysical Re-search, v. 101, p. 13,831–13,849.Wensink, H., 1994, Paleomagnetism of rocks fromSumba: Tectonic implication since the LateCretaceous: Journal of Southeast Asian EarthSciences, v. 9, p. 51–65.Manuscript received 14 June 2003Revised manuscript received 10 September 2003Manuscript accepted 10 September 2003Printed in USA  on September 15, 2013geology.gsapubs.orgDownloaded from 
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks