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    University “ Goce Delcev” Stip  Faculty of Philology Glossary    Mentor: Student: m-r.Marija Kusevska Marija Stankovik 1625  A pidgin,  or pidgin language , is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common. A creole language , or simply a creole , is a stable natural language developed from the mixing of parent languages; Lingua franca  - The Italian phrase lingua franca (literally Frankish language), which now denotes English as a leading language, referred srcinally to the hybrid language created and used in the Mediterranean area; Calques : Calques, that is, literal translations of single words or phrases, are a frequent form of borrowings widely used in terminology building. Borrowings  and loan words can change semantic features at different levels. Phrasal verbs  are combinations of root verbs with adverbial particles and/or prepositions, such as come over, get by, turn down, sink in, go at, look forward to, come up with, take off, etc. Phrasal verbs  are classified as follows: 1. transparent metaphors: fall into (a rage), cling to (a belief); the metaphor is transparent and it is easy to work out the meaning. In cling to (a belief), for example, you can almost visualize it. 2. lexicalized combinations in which the particles are used in one of the particular lexical senses, such as: continuity (walk on, go on); exhaustive (wither away); completion (sober someone up, calm down). English doesn’t have aspect, but it uses prepositions and adverbs to express aspectual meanings. 3. highly lexicalized (lexically fixed) combinations with questionable transparency or hardly detectable figurative meaning: tune out, sink in, carry on, look up to, get away with; 4. totally  unclear lexicalized idioms without a clear metaphorical meaning: put up with, do in;    The term fixed - multi-word idiomatic phrases - Traditional definitions of idioms would treat them as ‘multi -word items which are not the sum of their parts; they have holistic meanings which cannot be retrieved from the individual meanings of the co mponent words’ ;  idioms  are multi-word expressions falling on a continuum of compositionality  –  from highly fixed and opaque phrases to highly compositional and transparent expressions Lexical-Level Idioms, that is, expressions with exact translation equivalents ; Semi-Lexical Level Idioms, or partially matching idioms; Post-Lexical Level Idioms,  that is, non-matching ones; phrasal verb idioms - They are combinations of root verbs with adverbial particles and/or prepositions, such as come over, get by, turn down, sink in, go at, look forward to, come up with, take off,  etc.  semantic extension  Having lost their foreign nature by assimilation into the target language, words can assume new meanings, and modified meanings might follow, depending on the context : collocations  Literal translations of single words or phrases introduced into Macedonian collocations that had not been previously heard around. compounding . process of creating N1N2 compounds, with or without a dash . Some of this compound nouns consist of Macedonian translations, some consist of a loan word plus a Macedonian word, in some examples both are loan words ;
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