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Glossary. analytical reports reports that analyze a problem, present facts, draw conclusions, and make recommendations.

Glossary A abbreviation a shortened form of a word or a group of words. absolute adjectives an adjective that cannot be compared because it is already at the maximum level of its potential. accessibility
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Glossary A abbreviation a shortened form of a word or a group of words. absolute adjectives an adjective that cannot be compared because it is already at the maximum level of its potential. accessibility the ease with which customers can contact you. acknowledgment a message that tells a sender that a communication has been received. acronym a special type of abbreviation that is a pronounceable word formed from the first letter or letters of a series of words. action minutes minutes that summarize topics discussed, decisions made, and actions to be taken. action verbs verbs that can take direct or indirect objects and that help to create lively, effective sentences. active listening listening that requires understanding and remembering and that has purpose. active voice verb voice and style of writing that indicates the subject of the sentence is doing the action. address book an electronic document that stores addresses, regular mailing addresses, phone numbers, and other information. adjective a word that describes or limits nouns or noun substitutes, such as pronouns, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases. adverb a word that describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. agenda the order of business to be discussed during a particular meeting. alternative the possible solution to a problem. analytical reports reports that analyze a problem, present facts, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. animation the movement of text or images on a slide. antecedents nouns to which pronouns refer. apostrophe a mark that is used primarily to indicate the omission of one or more letters or numbers in a contraction, to indicate possession in nouns and indefinite pronouns, and to denote time and money. appendix section of a report that contains materials related to the report that are too long to be included in the body. application form a standardized data sheet that a company uses to compare qualifications of job applicants. appositive a noun or noun substitute that renames and refers to a preceding noun, providing additional information that is not necessary to the meaning of a sentence; it is set off with commas. attachment or enclosure notation notation that tells the recipient that another separate document is included with the letter or memo. attention getter a statement, a question, an anecdote, or another device designed to get the audience s attention. attention line the part of a letter that is used when the letter is not addressed personally to an individual and that directs the letter to a position or department within the organization or to an individual whom the writer considers to be the best person to receive it. B back up to make an extra copy of files. Glossary G-1 bar graph a graph that shows each data point as a rectangular bar; used when you want your audience to be able to compare the data represented in the graph. beam the process of electronically transmitting information from one handheld computer to another or from a handheld to a printer. bibliography the part of a report that lists the sources used in preparing the report, shown in alphabetical order by author s names (called Works Cited when using MLA guidelines). block format a format of business letters in which all lines begin at the left margin. Bluetooth a popular technology for PANs that allows Bluetooth-enabled devices to connect via radio and communicate using their own set of rules. body the part of an , a memo, or a letter that contains the message. body language communication symbols sent by body movement, such as facial expressions and gestures. brainstorming thinking of every possible idea about a particular topic. briefing a short presentation usually given at a meeting or conference to bring people up to date on business activities, projects, programs, or procedures. broken-bar graph a bar graph that indicates omission of part of each bar if some quantities are so large that they would go off the chart. business communication the communication process used in a business environment. C casual listening listening associated with conversation and entertainment in which the listener expends little energy or effort. cell phone a portable phone that allows receivers and senders to make phone calls while away from traditional telephones. channel the mode a sender selects to send a message. chat or conversation window an electronic display of everything said in the current chat session. claim a message that requests a refund, an exchange, or a discount on merchandise or services. clause a group of words with a subject and a predicate. closing paragraph a paragraph that ends a business communication with a summation or a reference to the main idea stated in the opening paragraph. code of ethics a set of ethical guidelines followed by an organization with respect to how it treats clients and employees or members. collection message a message that tries to persuade a customer to pay a past-due bill. collective noun a noun that represents a group that usually acts as a single unit, such as jury or tribe. colon an internal punctuation mark that directs the reader s attention to the material that follows. comma an internal punctuation mark that is used with introductory elements, independent clauses, nonessential elements, direct addresses, numbers, abbreviations, and repeated words; commas also are inserted in a series and between adjectives. comma splice the incorrect insertion of a comma, instead of a semicolon or a period, between two independent clauses. common noun a noun that identifies a person, place, or thing in a general way. communication the process used to send and interpret messages. communication barriers obstacles to communication. comparison a change in the form of adjectives. complete predicate everything in a sentence said by, to, or about the subject, including the main verb of the sentence. G-2 Glossary complete subject the simple subject in addition to the rest of the sentence that is not part of the complete predicate. complimentary close the formal closing or the good-bye of a letter. compound adjective two or more hyphenated words that precede and modify nouns. compound antecedent an antecedent that consists of two or more elements. compound noun a noun, proper or common, that requires two or more words. compound predicate two or more verbs with the same subject that are connected by conjunctions. compound subject two or more simple subjects joined by conjunctions. computer a machine that processes data according to a set of instructions in order to perform specific tasks. computer presentation a presentation that uses images that were created using computer software. computer vision syndrome (CVS) eyestrain and related vision problems experienced by computer users. concise brief, to the point, short. conclusion an opinion based on the interpretation of data. condition linking verb a verb with no object or indirect object that connects an adjective to the subject. confidential information private, secret information that is not to be shared with anyone except those authorized to know it. conjunctions words that join two or more sentence parts. conjunctive adverb a transitional word that joins two independent but related sentences. consensus a decision made and agreed upon by all members of a group. contact information the part of a resume that contains the applicant s name, address, telephone numbers where the applicant can be reached, , web address (if appropriate), and fax number. contact list an instant messaging feature that lists people who are online and available to chat. coordinate conjunction a word that joins words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank. copy or blind copy notation notation that indicates that a copy of the memo or letter is being sent to the person(s) named. copyright the legal right to produce books, articles, stories, photographs, and other works, usually held by the artist or author of the work. correlative conjunction words used in pairs that join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical rank, such as not only...but also, either...or, and neither...nor. courteous request a polite way to ask for action; it does not ask for a yes or no answer, and it requires a period rather than a question mark even when phrased as a question. credit refusal a message that denies credit to an applicant. cross-cultural communication communication between people from different cultures. culture a set of beliefs, attitudes, social customs, and practices that distinguishes a group of people. customer contact the process of maintaining customer satisfaction by communicating in a timely manner by whatever means is convenient for the customer. customer service the performance of activities to ensure customer satisfaction, including the categories of convenience, product, and price. D dash an internal punctuation mark, formed by keying two unspaced hyphens, that is used sparingly to enliven sentences and make them forceful; also used with appositives and other nonessential Glossary G-3 elements that contain commas, before a summarizing statement, with a sudden change of thought, and before a detailed listing. data information drawn from research results. dateline the part of a letter that shows the date the letter was keyed. declarative sentence a sentence that makes a statement. demonstrative pronoun a pronoun such as this, these, that, and those that points to a specific person, place, or thing in a given sentence or answers where. description a verbal and visual picture of something. desktop computer a personal computer that fits on a desk but is too large to carry easily from place to place. developmental paragraph a paragraph that contains important information or explanations about the main idea of the message. digital camera a camera that records images in digital form, on a sensor chip rather than on film, and from which they can be uploaded to a computer or web site, ed, or printed. direct address use of the reader s first or last name at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence to personalize a message; it is set off with commas. direct object a noun or pronoun directly affected by the action of the verb. direct order method of organization of a business communication in which the main idea is presented first, followed by supporting information. direct-indirect order combination method of organization when both positive and negative messages are conveyed in a business communication. discussion outline an outline that provides information about the topics and the subtopics presented under each heading. diversity differences in ethnicity, culture, background, and personality. double comparison the use of two forms of comparative degree adjectives (or superlative degree adjectives) to describe a noun. drawing a diagram that is useful for communicating a complicated idea or procedure. E e-commerce the buying and selling of goods on the Internet. edit the process of reviewing and revising a written message in order to improve it. electronic resume a resume that is sent electronically by or through an online resume builder. electronic whiteboard using special markers to write text and draw images on an erasable whiteboard, the user can print out a hard copy of what is written on the board. mail that is written, sent, and received on a computer. emoticon a combination of keyboard characters :-) or a smiley face icon used to reflect emotion in and instant messages. empathy understanding of the customer s feelings and situation. empower the process of giving employees the knowledge and skills they need to serve customers and giving employees the authority to make independent decisions within clear boundaries or within reason in delivering customer service. enunciation the way in which each part of a word is sounded out when spoken. ergonomics the design of products and processes with user safety, comfort, and efficiency in mind. ethics the principles of right and wrong that guide each person. ethnicity the division of people into groups that share a common ancestry, history, or culture. G-4 Glossary etiquette a set of rules of behavior for a particular place or situation. exclamation point an external punctuation mark that follows a word, a group of words, or a sentence that shows strong emotion. executive summary a brief overview of the report; sometimes called a synopsis or an abstract. expletive a word such as there, it, or here that is used to invert a sentence. extemporaneous speech a speech given from note cards or a brief outline rather than read from a manuscript. external barriers obstacles to communication that lie outside the receiver or sender. external communication communication that originates within a company and is sent to receivers outside the company. external customer someone from outside the company who requests information or purchases a product or service. external reports reports written for people outside the organization. F fair use a doctrine that allows, under certain circumstances, limited use of copyrighted material without the author s permission. fax machine a machine that sends and receives documents over a phone line. fax modem a device that interacts with fax machines and other fax modems to send and receive electronic documents. fax server a computer that handles all outgoing and incoming faxes via one or more fax modems. feature phone a cell phone that offers a variety of special features, such as the ability to play music, videos, and TV; send and receive ; and take digital still or video pictures. feedback the receiver s response to a message. findings and analysis section of the report body that presents the findings and supporting details and examines those results. firewall hardware, software, or a combination of the two that restricts access to the network by outsiders. flowchart a step-by-step diagram of a procedure or process. follow-up letter a letter written within two days of a job interview to the interviewer that thanks him or her for the interview and indicates the sender s interest in the job. formal communication communication that follows established lines of authority. formal reports reports that are long, analytical, and impersonal. frames popular web page features that divide browser windows into parts, each of which can display a separate web page. friendship message a special type of goodwill message that shows friendship between the sender and the receiver. functional order a form of organization used on resumes that presents accomplishments and skills in order of their importance, showing the most important or impressive first. future perfect tense verb a verb form that indicates action that will be completed at a specific point in the future. future tense verb a verb form that expresses an action or a condition yet to come. G gesture the use of arms and hands to express an idea or a feeling. Global Positioning System (GPS) a worldwide navigation system consisting of 24 satellites and ground stations that allows users to determine exactly where they are and how to get where they need to go. Glossary G-5 globalization an increasing connection and interdependence among nations in commerce, economies, culture, and other areas. glossary a list of unfamiliar terms and abbreviations and their definitions. goodwill the favorable reputation that an individual or a business has with its customers. goodwill message an acknowledgment or a friendly message designed to build relationships and to increase the receiver s positive feelings toward the sender. graph a diagram that provides a means for comparing data. graphic a visual representation of the words in a message, such as a table, chart, or graph. groupthink a phenomenon that occurs when the members of a group suppress their own ideas and make their opinions and decisions conform to those of other members. H handheld computer (palmtop) a computer that weighs a pound or less and fits in the palm of the hand. headings words used in report writing that help organize and present data and help readers follow as the writer moves from point to point. Hispanic a person of Spanish or Latin-American descent. home page the opening page of a web site. hotspots places that offer wireless Internet access. hyperlinks text or graphics that, when clicked on, take the user to another web page, another part of the page, or a different web site. hypertext markup language (HTML) a computer language that permits the use of audio, video, and graphics. hyphen an internal punctuation mark used in word division, after some prefixes, and in some compound words. hypothesis the possible cause or explanation for a problem. I identity theft the act of stealing personal information such as Social Security and credit card numbers. impromptu speech a speech given on the spot without any prior notice. inclusion the practice of seeking and valuing the contributions of everyone in a workplace and treating everyone fairly. indefinite pronoun a pronoun such as one or each that refers in general terms to people, places, or things. indirect object a noun or pronoun that receives the verb s action. indirect order method of organization of a business communication in which the supporting information is presented before the main idea. indirect question a statement that contains a reference to a question. informal communication communication that does not follow established lines of authority. informal reports short reports written in a lessformal style that are usually concerned with everyday matters that require little background. informational reports reports that present information (facts) and that include very little analysis. instant messaging (IM) a means of communicating immediately via electronic text messages with one or more people in real time. instructions written directions that tell readers how to do something. G-6 Glossary intensive pronoun a compound pronoun form created by joining a pronoun with self or selves that provides emphasis in a sentence. interface a point of interaction between desktop, windows, and other features that makes working with the computer easy. interjections words or expressions such as No! or Help! that have no grammatical relationship with other words in a sentence and are used to express strong emotion. internal barriers obstacles to communication that lie within the receiver or sender. internal communication communication that originates and is sent to receivers within a company. internal customer a supervisor or fellow employee who works within the company. Internet a vast network connecting millions of computers worldwide that is often referred to as the Net. Internet (web) faxing the delivery and receipt of fax messages over the Internet. internship an arrangement that allows a student to work for a company or an organization for a set period of time. interrogative pronoun a pronoun such as which or what used to begin a question that leads to a noun response. intranet a LAN that works like the Internet. intransitive verb a verb that does not need an object to complete the meaning of a sentence. introduction the text that states the purpose of the report. irregular adjectives adjectives that do not form their comparisons by adding er or more or adding est or most. irregular nouns nouns that do not form their plurals with the addition of an s or es. irregular verb a verb for which the past and past participle forms are constructed irregularly. J job objective a brief statement that describes the type of position the applicant is seeking. L laptop computer a portable computer that is small enough to fit on a person s lap. Latino a person of Latin-American descent. letter address the part of a letter that contains the name and address of the receiver. letter of application a sales tool that markets applicants to potential employers. letter of transmittal a letter that tr
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