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Grades of Execution Points

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  Figure skating jumps From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search  Figure skating jumps  are an element of three competitive figure skating disciplines  –  men's singles, ladies' singles, and pair skating but not ice dancing. Different jumps are identified by the take-off edge and the number of revolutions completed. There are six kinds of jumps currently counted as jump elements in ISU regulations. Three are edge  jumps  –  the Salchow, loop, and Axel  –  and three are toe jumps which use the toe picks on the front of the blade  –  the toe loop, flip, and Lutz. The Axel is the most difficult due to an extra half rotation. Each jump receives a score according to its base value and grade of execution (GOE). [1]  The GOE ranges from +3 to -3 and is weighted according to the jump's base value. Quality of execution, technique, height, speed, flow and ice coverage are considered by the judges. An under-rotated   jump (indicated by < ) is missing rotation of more than ¼, but less than ½ revolution and receives 70% of the base value. A downgraded   jump (indicated by <<) is missing rotation of ½ revolution or more . A triple which is downgraded is treated as a double, while a downgraded double is treated as a single jump. The ISU defines a fall as a loss of control with the result that the majority of the skater's body weight is not on the blade but supported by hands, knees, or buttocks. [2]  An edge violation occurs when a skater executes a jump on the incorrect edge. The hollow is a groove on the bottom of the blade which creates two distinct edges, inside and outside. The inside edge of the blade is on the side closest to the skater, the outside edge is on the side farthest from the skater, and a  flat   refers to skating on both edges at the same time, which is discouraged. An unclear edge or edge violation is indicated with an 'e' and reflected in the GOE according to the severity of the problem. Flutz  and lip  are the colloquial terms for a Lutz and flip jump with an edge violation. In 1982, the International Skating Union enacted a rule stating that a skater may perform each type of triple only once, or twice if one of them is incorporated into a combination or sequence. For a set of jumps to be considered a combination , each jump must take off from the landing edge of the previous jump, with no steps, turns, or change of edge in between jumps. Toe loops and loops are commonly performed as the second or third jump in a combination because they take off from the right back outside edge. To perform a salchow or flip on the back end of a combination, a half loop (which is actually a full rotation, but lands on a left back inside edge) may be used as a connecting jump. In contrast, jump sequences  are sets of jumps which may be linked by non-listed jumps or hops. [3]  Sequences are worth 80% of what the same jumps executed in combination would be worth. Jumps may be rotated in clockwise or counter-clockwise direction. Most skaters are counter-clockwise  jumpers. Scale of values[ Each jump has a base value, which is adjusted if the jump is under-rotated (<), and a grade of execution (GoE) from +3 to -3, weighted according to the base value. ISU abbreviations T Toe loopS SalchowLo Loop   F FlipLz LutzA Axel  The current scale of values is: [1]   Jump Base value (BV) BV if < GOE +3 GOE +2 GOE +1 GOE  – 1 GOE  – 2 GOE  – 3 1T 0.4 0.3  – 0.1  – 0.2  – 0.3 1S 0.4 0.3 1Lo 0.5 0.4 1F 0.5 0.4 1Lz 0.6 0.4 1A 1.1 0.8 +0.6 +0.4 +0.2  – 0.2  – 0.4  – 0.6 2T 1.3 0.9 2S 1.3 0.9 2Lo 1.8 1.3 +0.9 +0.6 +0.3  – 0.3  – 0.6  – 0.9 2F 1.8 1.3 2Lz 2.1 1.5 2A 3.3 2.3 +1.5 +1.0 +0.5  – 0.5  – 1.0  – 1.5 3T 4.1 2.9 +2.1 +1.4 +0.7  – 0.7  – 1.4  – 2.1 3S 4.2 2.9 3Lo 5.1 3.6 3F 5.3 3.7 3Lz 6.0 4.2 3A 8.5 6.0 +3.0 +2.0 +1.0 -1.0 -2.0 -3.0 4T 10.3 7.2 4S 10.5 7.4 4Lo 12.0 8.4 4F 12.3 8.6 4Lz 13.6 9.5 4A 15.0 10.5 3.6 +2.4 +1.2 -1.2 -2.4 -3.6  International Judging System (IJS) The information on this page is intended as a general overview of the international judging system (IJS) to help you understand the basics of the system. This information may, at times, not reflect any updates on usage, calculation and events of the IJS. This page was last revised Aug. 17, 2012. For more detailed information, please visit each specific disciplines' section located on the left sidebar. These sections provide links to all U.S./ISU documents that delve deeply into the IJS, including grades of execution, levels of difficulty, etc. If you are interested in all ISU documentation, visit the ISU website at www.isu.org.  Usage of the International Judging System  The international judging system will be used at:    Regionals and sectionals - all qualifying levels and all disciplines (in all rounds)    Synchronized sectionals - intermediate and above events including adult and collegiate    Adult sectionals - championship, masters and gold levels of singles (qualifying and nonqualifying events)    U.S. Junior Championships - all events    U.S. Championships - all events    U.S. Synchronized Skating Championships - intermediate and above events including adult and collegiate    U.S. Adult Championships - championship, masters and gold levels of singles and pairs, and the championship, masters, gold and pre-gold levels of dance (including masters open dance) Internationally, usage of the IJS is mandatory for all ISU events and international competitions. ISU member nations are free to use the system (or variation thereof) of their choice at national events. How the International Judging System Differs from the 6.0 System  The international judging system is based on cumulative points, which are awarded for a technical score and five additional program components - skating skills, transitions, performance/execution, choreography/composition and interpretation. The exception to this is the pattern dance event competed at the juvenile, intermediate, novice and adult levels, which uses four components: skating skills, performance/execution, interpretation and timing. If a skater performs more than the defined well-balanced program elements, there are no deductions, but the values of additional elements will not be calculated into the skater's score. (The exception to this is ice dancing, which takes a 1.0 deduction for each extra element.) If a skater performs less than the required elements, they receive fewer points, not deductions. Anonymity of Judges Under the International Judging System  U.S. Figure Skating has maintained that the judges' identities will not be anonymous in U.S. Figure Skating events. The judges' names and their scores are linked together. Snapshot of Officials and Scoring    At competitions scored with the international judging system, there are two panels of officials - the technical panel and the judging panel.. The technical panel is generally made up of five persons:  technical specialist, assistant technical specialist, technical controller, data operator and video replay operator. This panel works in direct communication with each other as each skater performs a program. In real time as the skater performs, the technical specialist  identifies the elements the skater performs. For example, for spins, they identify the type of spin and the level of difficulty of that element based on published pre-set criteria. The work of the technical specialist allows the judge to concentrate on marking the quality of each element. Technical specialists have to meet certain qualifications and pass writter and oral exams to be appointed to the position. Most technical specialists are national and international skaters or coaches and are involved in skating on a regular basis. When an element is identified by the technical specialist it is also referred to as the call . The assistant technical specialist  and the technical controller  support the technical specialist to ensure that any potential mistakes are corrected immediately. The technical controller is the leader of the technical panel. Any element can be reviewed by the technical controller, the technical specialist or the assistant technical specialist. All final decisions made on elements and levels will be made from the majority opinion of the three technical positions. At the U.S. Figure Skating Championships, each of these people are recorded with an audio tape during each program, and video clips are available to verify the calls. The elements are available for review after a skater's performance and calls can be changed accordingly. Calls and scores are final once they are posted, any protests for calculation errors resolved, and results are announced to the public. A technical panel error correction protocol outlining the types of calls that can and can't be changed and the timeline for making changes is posted on the U.S. Figure Skating website is posted on the U.S. Figure Skating website. The video replay operator  does exactly what it seems! If a video system is being utilized at a competition, this person tags each element on the video while a program is being performed. This allows the technical panel to go right to the beginning of an element during review without having to fast forward or rewind, speeding up the process significantly. The video is available to the technical panel for their review of any element to ensure that the correct assessment of the element was made. If there is video replay available to the judges, this videotape can be viewed by the judges for their analysis of the quality and/or errors made on any given element. The data operator  enters all the coding for the elements onto either paper or the computer as they are performed and the levels of difficulty are assigned. The  judging panel  is made up of a referee and multiple judges. There can be as few as three (at nonqualifying competitions) or as many as nine (at championships) judges on a panel. At ISU and U.S. Figure Skating Championships, an assistant referee might also be assigned to the judging panel. The judges focus totally on scoring the quality of each element and the five program components. Their marks are based on specific criteria for each element and provide a comprehensive assessment of each skater's skills and performance. A computer is used to keep track of the elements and scores, record results and calculate totals to determine the order of finish. The  referee  is the leader of the judging panel and is in charge the event. In this role, the referee is responsible for making sure rules are followed, taking the time of the program as skated, and deciding on any protests with respect to the event. The referee is also responsible for taking certain deductions. Technical Score  In the Technical Score, each element of a skater's program is assigned a base value. These element base values give the skaters credit for every element they perform. A group of experts, including experienced

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