GRAPHICAL RULES VOWEL PHONEME GRAPHICAL RULES IRREGULAR SPELLING 1. e in a closed accented syllable deaf, heavy, /е/ (red, better) measure, 2. 2. ea + d (bread, head, dead) pleasure, 3. 3. ea + th (death, weather) pleasant, health, 4. wealth, meant, breakfast, weapon a in a closed syllable (lad, glad) /æ/ Note: A number of trisyllabic words with the accented letter ‘a’ in an open syllable fall under this rule (family, cavity, vanity) 1. o in closed stressed syllables /ɒ/ (not, office) 2. wa (w
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  GRAPHICAL RULES VOWELPHONEMEGRAPHICAL RULESIRREGULAR SPELLINGRARESPELLINGPROVEBS ANDSAYINGS / е / 1. e  in a closed accened s!lla le#$ed% ee$&'.'. ea  ( d  # $ead% )ead% dead&*.*. ea  ( th  #dea)% +ea)e$&,.dea-% )ea!%/eas0$e% leas0$e% leasan% )eal)%+eal)% /ean%  $ea2-as% +eaonMan! /en% /an!/inds. Bee$ lae )an nee$%  0 nee$ lae.All is +ell% )a ends+ell. / æ / a  in a closed s!lla le #lad% 3lad&  Note:  A n0/ e$ o- $is!lla ic+o$ds +i) )e accened lee$ ‘a’ in an oen s!lla le -all 0nde$ )is$0le #-a/il!% cai!% ani!&W)o c)ae$s o !o0%+ill c)ae$ o- !o0. / ɒ / 1. o in closed s$essed s!lla les#no% o--ice&'. wa  #+as% +an% +all&* . qua  #40ali!% 40ani!& except  40a$e$.   eca0se%co03)%2no+led3e%sa0sa3eHones! is )e es olic!. Nee$ 0 o-- illo/o$$o+ +)a !o0can do oda!. / ʌ / 1. u  in s$essed s!lla les#)0$$!% 0ncle% cons0l&'. o +   m / n / v / th  #co/e%so/e% son% loe% 3oe$n% o)e$&.*. ou +   gh / b!e / #!e #o03)% eno03)% $o0 le% do0 le%co0le&,. ou + othe$ %on&onant& #co0n$!% co0$a3e% co0sin% o0c)%so0)e$n&  lood% -lood%+o$$!% soeSo /an! co0n$ies% so/an! c0so/s.Don5 $o0 le $o0 le0nil $o0 le $o0 les!o0.W)en +o S0nda!s/ee o3e)e$.A /an is 2no+n !)e co/an! )e 2ees. / ʊ / 1. oo + '   # oo2% loo2&'. # / b / ( + u  #0ll% 0ll% -0ll&  0% 0s% 0e$co0ld% s)o0ld%+o0ld% +ol-%  o040eA 3ood e3innin3/a2es a 3ood endin3.A 3ood coo2 nee$ coo2s +)ile loo2in3ino a coo2e$!6 oo2. / ә / 1. a  in $e-i7es #a o0% aslee&'.in s0--i7es e$) o$) a$) ou$) ou& #eac)e$% doco$% cella$% -ao0$%-a/o0s&*. a) o) u non6accened #so-a%ao/% col0/n& / ɑ: / 1. a$  #ca$% a$!&'. a +   &&  #ass% 3lass&% a + &t  #as% -as& a + &'   #as2% as2e& a + &#  #3$as% clas& a + (t #a-e$% c$a-& a + th  #a)% -a)e$&*.  a + ( / m  #)al-% cal-% cal/% al/&8. an%e / and  in +o$ds o- 9$enc) o$i3in #9$ance% 3lance%de/and% co//anded& +)ens$esseda0n% d$a03)%cle$2% )ea$%)ea$)% a:aa$%d$a/a% a$ea%o/ao%  anana%3a$a3e%/o0sac)e%aseHe la03)s es% +)ola03)s las.A$ is lon3% li-e iss)o$.1  / ɔ: / 1. oo$) ou$) oa$  #-loo$% doo$%!o0$% co0$se% oa$d&'. o$  #o$% so$&*. a  (  /  ( consonan #all%all% sal% c)al2&,. ough) augh + t  #so03)%ca03)&8. wa$  #+a$/% +a$d&o0$% -lo0$% so0$% oo$ I nee$ $ains% 0 i o0$s. / ɜ: / 1. e / * / u /   ( $ #e$/% se$ice%  i$d% si$% n0$se% -0$&'. ea$ + consonan   #ea$)% )ea$d&)ea$% )ea$)%+o$n% +o$2%+o$)M0$de$ +ill o0.9i$s co/e% -i$sse$ed.Lie and lea$n. / u: / 1. u  in oen s!lla les #0ne% d0e%)0e&.  Note:  I so0nds ;0<;  $eceded ! =l5% =>5% =$5 #?0ne% $0le%  l0e% $0e&.'. eu / ew  #ne0$al% -e0dal% -e+%ne+&.*. u*  #s0i% -$0i% c$0ise&.,. ou  in +o$ds o- 9$enc) o$i3in#3$o0% so0% $o0e% !o0)% +o0nd%$o03e&.S)oe% ea0!%40e0e% +)o%+)o/% +)ose%do% o% +o%o/  No ne+s is 3oodne+s.Bad ne+s )as +in3s. / еɪ / 1. a  in closed s!lla les #a2e%la2e&'. a*) a  #/ain% lain% /a!% la!&*. e*) e  #eil% ein%nei3) o0$% 3$e!% )e!% cone!&,. ea # $ea2&8. e*gh #ei3)&2e!% )ei3)Ma2e )a!% +)ile )es0n s)ines.Hase /a2es +ase. No 3ains +i)o0so/e ains. / aɪ / 1. *)   in a s$essed oens!lla le #ie% ie% -inal% i/e&'. *gh / *gh + t  #li3)% ni3)&*.  + d / nd  #c)ild% +ild%2ind% lind&,. *e / e  #ie% $!e&8. e* #)ei3)&@. *gn  #si3n&ei)e$% nei)e$   Irregular reading: +ind% ci!% i! / ɔɪ / o*) o  #oil% oil% o!% o!se$&  Irregular reading: o$oise)e oice o- one /anis )e oice o- no /an. / ɪә / 1. e$e) ea$) ee$) ea  #)e$e% s)e$e%)ea$% dea$% -ea$% dee$% ee$% idea&'. *e$  # ie$% -ie$ce% cas)ie$&*. e  in oen accened s!lla les + $ #e$a% )e$o% e$iod% se$io0s&o ea$% o +ea$%o ea$% ea$%+)e$e% )e$e)eo$!%/0se0/%)ea$e% idea%  ea$d% $eal Nei)e$ )e$e no$ )e$e.E7e$ience is )e eseac)e$.o e 0 o one5s ea$sin loe. / ɛә / 1. a$e) a*$) ea$) e$e  #)a$e%-a$e% ca$e% $ea$e% )ai$% c)ai$% ai$%+ea$% )e$e&'. a in oen acceneds!lla les  + $ #a$!% Ma$!% a$en%a$ian&a$e% ea$% +ea$%ea$% +)e$e% )e$eW)e$e )e$e5s a +ill%)e$e5s a +a!.A-e$ $ain co/es -ai$ +ea)e$.'  / ʊә / 1. u$e  #c0$e% 0$e% s0$e&'. u  in an oen s!lla le + ( / $ #-0$!% d0$in3% c0$e&*. oo$ #oo$&,. ou$  #o0$&8. ue #c$0e&@. ue #$0e&.e+e$   !(ewe$  Irregular reading: o 0$! oo$% /oo$%o0$% E0$oeW)a can5 e c0$ed/0s e end0$ed.Slo+ 0 s0$e.C0$iosi! 2illed a ca. / әʊ / 1. o  in oen s!lla les #3o%)o/e% /o/en&'. o +  / d / &t #oll% $oll%old% old% os&*. ow #lo+% s)o+% 2no+%o/o$$o+&,. oa # oa% $oad&8. o in +o$d6-inal 0ns$esseds!lla les #)e$o% )oo% oao&@. ou #s)o0lde$&  Exceptions: no+% )o+% co+%$o+% $o+% o+  Irregular  spelling: S)o0lde$% o0l$!%so0l% o+e% /o0ldW)en in Ro/e do asRo/ans do.Be slo+ o $o/iseand 40ic2 o e$-o$/. / aʊ / 1. ou  #o0% )o0sand&'. ow  #o+n% do+n% o+el&d$o03)% o03)% lo03)A so0nd /ind in aso0nd od!.Acions sea2 lo0de$ )an +o$ds.*
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