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Gyroscopic Instruments

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  1.1Gyroscopic Instruments The gyroscope (Gyro) forms an essential element in artificial horizons,automatic pilot systems and gyro compasses.In navigation it provides a means by which anaircraft’s direction and attitude can be determined. Definition It is well nown that aspinning top will remain upright which it is set spinning at high speed,but as its speed of rotation slows down it eventually topples. !ny rotating mass has gyroscopic properties which produce special effects that itdoes not have if it is sationary.masses which produce gyroscopic effects include   et engines,spinning coin,a bicycle wheel,the earth,in fact any mass that rotates. !lthough all rotating masses have gyroscopic properties,in engineering terms thename gyroscope is used e#tensively to describe a rotating mass$or %rotor$mounted in such a way that the spin a#is of rotor is free to rotate about one or more a#es at right angles to the spin a#is..&.&.&Gyroscopic 'roperties !s mechanical device a gyroscope may be defined as a system containing a heavy metal wheel (rotor), universally mounted so that it has three degrees of freedom Spinning freedom:  !bout an a#is perpendicular through its centre (a#is of spin ). Tilting Freedom:  !bout a horizontal a#is at right angles to the spin a#is (a#is of tilt **). Veering Freedom:  !bout a vertical a#is perpendicular to both the other two a#es (a#is of veer ++).The three degrees of freedom are obtained by mounting the rotor in two concentrically pivoted rings, called inner and outer rings. The whole assembly is nown as the gimbal system of a free or space gyroscope. The gimbal system ismounted in a frame so that in its normal operating position, all the a#es are mutually at right angles to one another and intersect at the center of gravity of therotor.The system will not e#hibit gyroscopic properties unless the rotor is spinning. hen the rotor is spinning at high speed the device becomes a true gyroscope possessing two important fundamental properties&.Gyroscopic Inertia (-igidity).  .'recession.&.&.-igidityThe property, which resists any, force tending to change the plane of rotor rotation. It is dependent on&.The mass of the rotor..The speed of rotation.&.&./'recessionThe angular change in direction of the plane of rotation under the influence of an applied force. The change in direction taes place, not in line with the force, but always at a point 012 away in the direction of rotation. The rate of precession also depends on&.The strength and direction of the applied force..The angular velocity of the rotor.3igure / shows a gyroscope.  Gyroscope.3igure // shows the characteristics of gyro rigidity. OUTERRINGFR!EINNERRINGROTOR     ##$$  Gyro -igidity3igure //Gyro ! has its spin a#es parallel with the 4arth5s spin a#es, located at the 6orth 'ole. It could hold this position indefinitely.Gyro 7 has its spin a#es parallel to the 4arth5s spin a#es, but located at the 48uator. !s the 4arth rotates, it would appear to continually point 6orth.Gyro 9 is also situated at the 48uator. !s the 4arth rotates, it appears to rotate about its a#es, however it is the 4arth that is rotating and not the gyro.This rigidity can be used in a number of gyro instruments including the directionalgyro.  %&
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