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  Handout # 7 Human Behavior BBA-1 Chapter 5: Learning Instructed By Ms. Ghazala Danish Learning: An adaptative process in which the tendency to perform a particular behavior is changed by experience. Learning  became a major focus of study in psychology during the early part of the twentieth century. Today, learning remains an important concept in numerous areas of psychology, including cognitive, educational, social, and developmental  psychology. Learning is acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or  preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of  information. Learning is not compulsory, it is contextual. Learning may occur  consciously or without conscious awareness. Human learning may occur as part of  education, personal development and training. It may be goal oriented and may be aided by motivation.  Example:  Play has been approached by several theorists as the first form of learning. Children play, experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact. The 4 Factors That Form the Definition of Learning: 1) learning is inferred from a change in behavior/performance 2) learning results in an inferred change in memory 3) learning is the result of experience 4) learning is relatively permanent Kinds of learning: There are three kinds of learning.    Habituation    Classical conditioning    Operant conditioning Habituation : Habituation is a decrease in response to a stimulus after repeated presentations. It is a simplest form of learning. Example:  a sound in your environment, such as a new ring tone, may initially draw your attention or even become distracting. After you become accustomed to this sound, you pay less attention to the noise and your response to the sound will diminish. This diminished response is habituation. Orienting response: The orienting response, also called orienting reflex, is an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment. Example:  When people see a bright flash of light or hear a sudden loud noise, they pay attention to it even before they identify it. This orienting reflex seems to be present from birth. It is useful in helping people react quickly to events that call for immediate action. Classical conditioning: The process by which a response normally elicited by one stimulus comes to be controlled by another stimulus as well. Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association .  In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Kinds of classical conditioning: There are 4 type of classical conditioning.    Unconditional stimulus (UCS)    Unconditional response (UCR)    Conditional stimulus (CS)    Conditional response (CR)   Unconditional stimulus (UCS): The unconditional stimulus (US) is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. Example:  when you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is the unconditioned stimulus.  Unconditional response (UCR): The unconditional response is the unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to the unconditional stimulus. Example:  if the smell of food is the unconditioned stimulus, in this example, the feeling of hunger is the unconditioned response. Conditional stimulus (CS): The conditional stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response.  Example:  suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus and a feeling of hunger is the unconditioned response. Now, imagine that when you smelled your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle. While the whistle is unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the whistle was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the whistle is the conditioned stimulus. Conditional response (CR): The conditional response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. Example:  let's suppose that the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response the smell is an unconditioned response, and a sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would  be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle. Pavlov’s experiment:   Ivan Pavlov had won noble price for working on the neurology of the digestion system. He studies why digestive secretions flow when an animal anticipates food. There are three steps of the experiments. If a dog visualizes his food, he will begin to salivate. This is a conditioned response or an anticipated of food to come. It also prepares dog’s mouth to receive food and begin digestion of the food (saliva is a digestive fluid). Step # 01: (Before Conditioning): An unconditional stimulus (UCS) is one that normally elicits the unconditional response (UCR). In the example meat is used as and unconditional stimulus (UCS). UCS _____________________________________________________ UCR (Meat) (Salivation) In addition conditioning requires that an initially neutral stimulus (NS) be identified. This must be neutral with respect to the UCR, which will be measured. Here bell is neutral stimulus.  NS ______________________________________________________ UCS (Bell or Tone) (Meat) Step # 02: (Conditioning process): The conditioning process involves presenting the neutral stimulus (NS) and the unconditional stimulus (US) at the same time and repeating it many times. The more repetitions, the stronger the conditioning.  NS ______________________ UCS _______________________ UCR (Bell or Tone) (Meat) (Salivation) Step # 03: (After Conditioning): Once conditional has been established we are ready to test it. To do this the dog is presented with ringing of the bell. If condition has been established the ringing bell will elicit salivation almost if the meat had been presented. CS ______________________________________________________ CR (Bell or Tone) (Salivation)    Basic principals of classical conditioning: Behaviorists have described a number of different phenomena associated with classical conditioning. Some of these elements involve the initial establishment of the response, while others describe the disappearance of a response. These elements are important in understanding the classical conditioning process. Acquisition Acquisition is the initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened. Example,  imagine that you are conditioning a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a bell. You repeatedly pair the presentation of food with the sound of the bell. You can say the response has been acquired as soon as the dog  begins to salivate in response to the bell tone. Once the response has been acquired, you can gradually reinforce the salivation response to make sure the behavior is well learned. Extinction Extinction is when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus.  Example,  if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear. Spontaneous Recovery Spontaneous Recovery is the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated, extinction will occur very rapidly after a spontaneous recovery. Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Generalization is the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned. Example,  if a child has been conditioned to fear a stuffed white rabbit, the child will exhibit fear of objects similar to the conditioned stimulus. Discrimination Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been  paired with an unconditioned stimulus.  Example,  if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would involve being able to tell the difference  between the bell tone and other similar sounds. Operant conditioning: Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as  instrumental conditioning ) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Skinner used the term operant   to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Examples of Operant Conditioning We can find examples of operant conditioning at work all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or  promotions. In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior. The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors.  Components of Operant Conditioning: Some key concepts in operant conditioning,    Reinforcement      Punishment      Extinction      Law of effect   Reinforcement : Reinforcement is any event that increases the behavior it follows. There are two kinds of reinforces, Positive reinforcement: In positive reinforcement a response is followed by the addition of a stimulus and then that response is more likely to recur. In positive reinforcement an act is followed by a pleasurable reward. Example, a person does something right and his boss praises him, then he wants to work with dignity. Negative reinforcement : In negative reinforcement a response is followed by the removal of a stimulus and then that response is more likely to recur. In negative reinforcement negative behavior changes into positive behavior. Example, a person does something right and his boss doesn’t criticize him as he usually does.   Punishment:  In punishment negative behavior changes into negative behavior. It is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. Example, a person does something wrong and his boss criticize him. Extinction: In psychology, extinction refers to the gradual weakening of a conditioned response those results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing. In extinction positive behavior changes in to negative behavior. Example, a person does something wrong and his boss does not criticize him as he usually does. Law of effect: The law of effect principle developed by Edward Thorndike suggested that responses closely followed by satisfaction will become firmly attached to the situation and therefore more likely to reoccur when the situation is repeated. Conversely, if the situation is followed by discomfort, the connections to the situation will become weaker and the behavior of response is less likely to occur when the situation is repeated.
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