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Herbal Pharm Prac Manual 2 (1)

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Herbal Pharmacognosy notes 1st year studends
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    Herbal Pharmacognosy 312   Practical manual  Coordinators: Miss M. Hess and MissS. Nyati Pharmacognosy PracticalsList of lants 1.Senna2.Digitalis3.Belladonna4.Stramonium5.Ginger6.Liquorice7.Lobelia8.ascara!.lo e1#.$%ubarb11.&ennel12.'u( omica13.ardamom  S!NN onsists o) dried lea*ets o) t%e +ari+innate lea es o) Tinnevelly senna ,. angustifolia - #$ %N&S'$C M$C(&SC&P$C L CH ( C'!(S: ,i-%in/0alled +ol%edral cells ,straig%t or slig%tl 0a  0alls- and +aractic stomata o) t%e e+idermis. ucilage is +resent in t%e inner%al) o) man e+idermis cells. ,Stain 0it% $ut%enium $ed solution-,ii-+idermal co ering tric%ome conical unicellular t%ic/0alled 0art )requentl cur es near t%e base. a occur scattered or attac%ed to )ragments o) e+idermis. Scars )requentl isible on bot% e+idermises s%o0ing t%e +oint o) attac%ment o) t%e tric%omes.,iii-alisade tissue occurring beneat% bot% e+idermal sur)aces t%ose belo0 t%e u++er e+idermis being elongated and )airl straig%t/0alled 0%ile t%ose beneat% t%e lo0er e+idermis are s%orter 0it% serous 0alls.,i -$ounded s+ong cells o) t%e meso+%ll bet0een t%e t0o +alisade laers )requentl containing cluster crstals o) calcium o(alate.  , -ericclic 9bres occurring in grou+s t%ose are t%ic/0alled ligni9ed ,stain 0it% %loroglucinol:;L- 0it% a )e0 +its *aned b a+arenc%mous s%eat% t%e cells o) 0%ic% )requentl contain single +risms o) calcium o(alate. C&NS'$')!N'S &* S!NN L! * %ie* ant%raquinone/t+e com+ounds bot% )ree and combined asglcosides. %eir +resence ma be detected b means o) Borntr<ger=stest. ,ositi e-See monogra+% o) Senna &ruit and carr out t%e test as described. M$C(&SC&P$C L !+ M$N '$&N: ,i->arm 1##mg o) +o0dered Senna lea) in a test tube 0it% 5ml o) 7#? alco%ol and s%ae 0ell. &ilter using a )urt%er 5ml o) 7#? alco%ol to rinse t%e tube and residue,ii-$eser ing a little o) t%e residue obtained +lace t%e remainder in a small test tube 0it% 2ml o) c%loro%drate solution. ;eat 0it% s%aing in a beaer o) boiling 0ater until t%e )ragments are su@cientl trans+arent com+leting t%e +rocess b boiling t%e test tube gentl in a lo0 *ame.,iii-An a slide +lace one dro+ o) t%e cleared ,9ltered- material add one dro+ o) glcerine ,5#?- and e(amine microsco+icall a)ter co ering 0it% a co er sli+. se bot% L. and ;. and mae setc%es o) t%e diagnostic )eatures mentioned abo e.,i -An a slide +lace one dro+ o) cleared material add one dro+ o) %loroglucinol one dro+ o) conc. ;L and one dro+ o) Glcerine ,5#?-. (amine using L.. and ;..
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