Documents

Hispa in Americ Revo--latest Version 1-24-'12

Description
HISPANICS IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION -1775-1783 The American Revolution ( April 19, 1775-September 3, 1783) also known as the War for Independence had its beginning as a civil war ( no war is civil) by the American Colonies against Britain, but in 1779 Spain joined in this conflict and in essence creating an international war. During that period Spain had colonies in almost every part of North America which included great areas of what is now the United States of America . Hispanics in the USA
Categories
Published
of 5
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  HISPANICS IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION -1775-1783 The American Revolution ( April 19, 1775-September 3, 1783) also known as the War for Independence had its beginning as a civil war ( no war is civil) by the American Colonies against Britain, but in 1779 Spain  joined in this conflict and in essence creating an international war. During that period Spain had colonies in almost every part of North America which included great areas of what is now the United States of America . Hispanics in the USA were eager to help the American soldiers in their fight against Britain, since that country had been an enemy of Spain since the Seven Years War ( 1754-1763). However and perhaps due to many historical events including the USA- Mexican War of 1848 and the Texas Battle of the Alamo of 1836, the United States of America has always looked toward France as its eternal ally and has obscured, forgotten or has simply denied any Hispanic participation during our own American Revolution However, it is well documented that Hispanics actively participated in this conflict not only in providing soldiers, but also providing arms, supplies, beef, money, and strategic sea coverage and protection. It was difficult for Spain to declare war against Britain given the fact that Spain was fighting her own war against Portugal. However this did not prevent Spain from engaging in a cloak of secrecy regarding its support of the American soldiers in their struggle against a common enemy , a secrecy vital to Spain’s defense of its Spanish colonies in the Southwest , in areas now comprising great parts of what is now the United States of America. By the year 1777 Spain had already given an excessive amount of money to the American soldiers , money that was badly needed and it was done via Juan Mireles an emissary who became good friends with George Washington. Mireles ’  mission was to assure that the interest of Spain and her colonies were respected, and that the monies, and other items presented to Washington were properly utilized. The Spanish diplomat Juan Mirelles died at Washington’s headquarters, and it was Washington who, at his funeral, pronounced the following words honoring his Hispanic friend: ”…  in this country (USA) he has been universally esteemed and his death will be universally regretted.”  28.   It was not until June 21, 1779 that Spain officially declared war against Britain; giving many Hispanics now residing in the Spanish Southwest an opportunity to formally assist the American soldiers in their struggle for independence, and thus assuring Hispanics a place in the formation of what is now the United States of America. Support for the American colonies came in different forms, with supplies being one of them, as war supplies left Cádiz, Spain loaded with items headed toward the ports of Boston and Philadelphia. Washington himself courted the representative of Spain as he readily understood the importance of Spain’s g reat sea power to divert Britain away from the local land conflict of the thirteen colonies. Furthermore, Spain contributed greatly to the success of the American Revolution by providing the American soldiers with a secure Southern and Western borders from its bases in Louisiana, California and Cuba. Governor Bernardo de Gálvez then governor of Louisiana and for whom Galveston, Texas is named, led his troops made of Spanish “ Isleños” residents of Louisiana, Native Americans, freed African-Americans and others into New Orleans, in what became known as the “ Marcha de Gálvez”, capturing Baton  Rouge and Natchez, both British posts on the Mississippi; then turning on to Mobile, which he and his men conquered, and later on Pensacola, Florida, where a bastion of British power surrendered to him in 1781, together with about 1,100 of the enemy . More than one hundred Spanish ships were deployed from México and other parts of New Spain to aid in the fight against Britain. So great was Governor Bernardo de Gál vez’ intervention in the American Revolution that after the war the American Congress highly commended him for his aid during these many years of struggle, and his name should rank high among the many heroes of the American Revolution. A famous Hispanic officer under the command of Governor Gálvez and who helped American colonists was Francisco de Miranda, who was born in Venezuela and who fought in the siege of Pensacola. He later 29.   played a leading role in obtaining supplies badly needed to assist the American soldiers at Yorktown. As a result of his accomplishments and heroic deeds during the American Revolution, Miranda is honored with statues in Washington D.C, and in Philadelphia, and with a park in Pensacola. Another Hispanic who assisted the American soldiers was Captain Jorge Farragut who, although born in Spain on the island of Minorca , came to help and fought gallantly in the American Revolution. His son, Admiral of the United States Navy David Farragut, fought gallantly during the Civil War where he was promoted the first Admiral of the US Navy in 1866 for his heroic role in the Battle of Mobile Bay in 1864. It is very clear that from the time the srcinal 13 colonies declared their independence from Britain in 1773 , Hispanics played a very important role in this struggle for freedom. Spanish colonies in California, Tejas, New Mexico, and other southwestern areas of Spanish colonial lands donated troops ,arms, and money in support of this independence movement. In the case of Texas, who was best known for its cattle raising in the Tejano community and where Tejano cattle and land barons raised large and profitable herds, cattle drives by Tejano “ rancheros” were organized in the   1770’s as “vaqueros” , the precursors of the modern cowboys, moved cattle to Louisiana which was the route taken in support of Hispanics on the Gulf Coast who were engaged in assisting the American soldiers and supplying much needed beef to the soldiers of the American Revolution. Such Tejano cattle barons as: Santiago Seguín, Marcos Hernández, Manuel González, Carlos Martínez, José Matías Longoria Chapa and Félix Gutiérrez are among many Tejanos who herded their cattle that fed the soldiers of the American Revolution. At the Royal Palace of San Ildefonso King Carlos III of Spain on August 17, 1780 issued a Royal Decree to all of his vassals in New Spain , which also included California, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, Louisiana, Florida, South America, México, and the Caribbean Islands requesting that every Indian and Mestizo give one peso which was the currency of that time and that every Spaniard donate two pesos every 30.   month to help defray the cost of the American Revolution .Thus, Spanish missions and other churches throughout the southwestern Spanish colonial lands in what is now the United States of America collected many a “ pes o ” or more from their faithful parishioners to send over to the American soldiers thus helping finance many a skirmish during the War of Independence . Other interesting facts about Hispanics participation in the American Revolution are as follows: 1.)   In 1776 the only supplies received by the forces of George Washington were those from ships bearing the Spanish flag. 2.)   General Charles Lee requested badly needed supplies from Luis Unzaga, then Governor of Louisiana, and Unzaga sent over ten thousand pounds of ammunition. 3.)   King Carlos III of Spain ordered that arms. ammunition and clothing be sent to Washington’s revolutionaries from Texas, Mexico, Cuba and Louisiana. 4.)   In 1776 Spain opened an account by which money was used to buy the following for the soldiers fighting in the American Revolution: 216 cannons, 27 mortars, 209 cannon carriages, 51,134 bullets, thirty thousand rifles with bayonets, 4,00 camping tents, 30 thousand military uniforms. All of these items were sent to the revolutionaries via the Rodríguez and Hortález Company. 5.)   About one hundred Spanish soldiers fighting with Washington’s revolutionaries were captured and taken prisoners by the British in New York. 6.)   Spain placed her navy in the service of Washington’s revolutionaries by blocking certain areas of the sea. 31.
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks