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Hubungan Ekonomi Negara - Negara Asean

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Page 1 Page 1 Draft Only ± Not for Citation Draft Hanya - Bukan untuk Kutipan 11 THE ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN CHINA EKONOMI HUBUNGAN ANTARA CHINA AND INDONESIAAND MAINLAND CHINA¶S DAN Cina Daratan INDONESIAAND'S INVESTMENTS IN INDONESIA INVESTASI DI INDONESIA Lin Mei Mei lin I. Introduction I. Pendahuluan There are many literatures about the economic relation between China and ASEAN Ada banyak literatur tentang hubungan ekonomi antara China dan ASEAN which included the economic relation betwee
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  Page 1   Page 1   Draft Only ± Not for Citation   Draft Hanya - Bukan untuk Kutipan  1 1 THE ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN CHINA   EKONOMI HUBUNGANANTARA CHINA   AND INDONESIAAND MAINLAND CHINA¶S   DAN Cina Daratan INDONESIAAND'S   INVESTMENTS IN INDONESIA   INVESTASI DI INDONESIA   Lin Mei   Mei lin   I. Introduction   I. Pendahuluan  There are many literatures about the economic relation between China and ASEAN Ada banyak literatur tentang hubungan ekonomi antara China dan ASEANwhich included the economic relation between China and Indonesia, major ones of yangmencakup hubungan ekonomi antara China dan Indonesia, yang utamawhich are as follows: 'the political economy of China's changing relations with yang adalahsebagai berikut: 'ekonomi politik yang berubah-ubah hubungan China denganSoutheast Asia' (Wong 1984), 'China-ASEAN economic relations: trades and patterns' AsiaTenggara '(Wong 1984),' China-ASEAN hubungan ekonomi: perdagangan dan pola '(Cheng Bifan and Chia Siow-Yun 1988), 'China-ASEAN economic relations: (Cheng Bifan danChia Siow-Yun 1988), 'China-ASEAN ekonomi hubungan:development in China and ASEAN and their implications for China±ASEAN pembangunan diChina dan ASEAN dan implikasinya terhadap China-ASEANeconomic relations' (Cheng Bifan and Chia Siow-Yun 1989), 'China±ASEAN ekonomihubungan '(Cheng Bifan dan Chia Siow-Yun 1989),' China-ASEANeconomic relations: in the context of Pacific economic development and cooperation' hubunganekonomi: dalam konteks pembangunan ekonomi Pasifik dan kerjasama '(Cheng Bifan and Chia Siow-Yun 1991), 'China-ASEAN economic relations: (Cheng Bifan danChia Siow-Yun 1991), 'China-ASEAN ekonomi hubungan:industrial restructuring in ASEAN and China' (Luo Zhaohong and Chen Renhe 1995).restrukturisasi industri di ASEAN dan Cina (Luo Zhaohong dan Chen Renhe 1995).Besides books, some scholars had published papers on economic relation between Selain buku,beberapa sarjana telah menerbitkan makalah tentang hubungan ekonomi antaraChina and Indonesia such as Hadi Soesastro (1986), Raymond Atje and Arya B Gaduh Chinadan Indonesia seperti Hadi Soesastro (1986), Raymond Atje dan Arya B Gaduh(1999), Jusuf Wanandi (2001), and so on. (1999), Jusuf Wanandi (2001), dan seterusnya.'The economic relations between China and Indonesia' is old academic studying field Hubunganekonomi antara China dan Indonesia 'sudah tua belajar bidang akademik on one hand, but it is always a new field attracting scholar's attention on the other hand. di satusisi, tapi itu selalu merupakan bidang baru yang menarik perhatian sarjana di sisi lain.The economic relations between them have been in change with the change of politic Hubunganekonomi antara mereka telah di ubah dengan perubahan politik and economy in these two countries and the change of regional and global relationship. danekonomi di kedua negara dan perubahan hubungan regional dan global.So it is always imperative to study the economic relation between China and Indonesia Jadiselalu penting untuk mempelajari hubungan ekonomi antara China dan Indonesiain response to the change of respective economy and international relationships. dalammenanggapi perubahan perekonomian masing-masing dan hubungan internasional. This Ini  paper will focus on four areas: 1) China's economic relations with Indonesia since kertas akanfokus pada empat bidang: 1) hubungan ekonomi China dengan Indonesia sejak 1950s; 2) the complementarity and competitiveness of economic relations between 1950-an, 2)yang saling melengkapi dan daya saing hubungan ekonomi antaraChina and Indonesia; 3) The impact of China's entry into WTO and establishment of China danIndonesia; 3) Dampak's masuknya Cina ke dalam WTO dan pembentukanChina-ASEAN free trade area on economic relation between China and Indonesia; 4) Cina-ASEAN kawasan perdagangan bebas pada hubungan ekonomi antara China dan Indonesia; 4)Chinese investment in Indonesia. Cina investasi di Indonesia. II.   II.   China's economic relations with Indonesia since 1950s   Cina hubungan ekonomidengan Indonesia sejak tahun 1950-an  China and Indonesia finally became nation state after World War II , but followed China danIndonesia akhirnya menjadi negara bangsa setelah Perang Dunia II, tetapi diikutidifferent social systems which put strong influence on economic relations between berbedasistem sosial yang menempatkan pengaruh kuat pada hubungan ekonomi antarathem. mereka. Together with the influence of international political regimes in the period of Bersama dengan pengaruh rezim politik internasional di masaCold War, the economic relations between China and Indonesia had not been smooth. PerangDingin, hubungan ekonomi antara China dan Indonesia tidak pernah mulus.Economic relations between Indonesia and China are closely related to the political hubunganekonomi antara Indonesia dan Cina sangat erat terkait dengan politik relations between the two countries. hubungan antara kedua negara. As the political relationshave been up and down, Karena hubungan politik telah naik dan turun,so have been the economic relations. sehingga telah menjadi hubungan ekonomi.  Page 2   Page 2   Draft Only ± Not for Citation   Draft Hanya - Bukan untuk Kutipan  2 2China and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1950 and signed first China danIndonesia menjalin hubungan diplomatik pada tanggal 13 April 1950 dan ditandatangani pertamabilateral trade agreement in 1953. perjanjian perdagangan bilateral pada tahun 1953. Afterward,the trade between them had been Setelah itu, perdagangan antara mereka telahincreased, the total trade value between them increased from US$ 7.38 million in 1954meningkat, nilai total perdagangan antara mereka meningkat dari US $ 7.380.000 pada tahun1954to US$ 129 million in 1959. untuk US $ 129 juta pada tahun 1959. Even in 1965, China oncebecame the second trade partner Bahkan pada tahun 1965, Cina pernah menjadi mitra dagangkeduaof Indonesia which Indonesian import and export value from China occupied 11 Indonesia yangimpor Indonesia dan ekspor nilai dari China ditempati 11percent of the total value of Indonesian import and export. persen dari total nilai impor Indonesiadan ekspor. But following the '30 Namun berikut '30September' incident in 1965, the diplomatic relations between two countries were 'InsidenSeptember pada tahun 1965, hubungan diplomatik antara kedua negarasuspended in 1967. ditangguhkan pada tahun 1967. This had a significant negative impact on theeconomic relations Hal ini memiliki dampak negatif yang signifikan pada hubungan ekonomi  between Indonesia and China. antara Indonesia dan Cina. Direct trade link between themtherefore stopped and Perdagangan langsung hubungan antara mereka itu berhenti danindirect trade had been taken through Hongkong and Singapore. perdagangan tidak langsungtelah diambil melalui Hongkong dan Singapura. Until 1980s, Relations Sampai tahun 1980-an,Hubunganbetween China and Indonesia began to ease. antara China dan Indonesia mulai mereda. In July1985, the Indonesian Chamber of Pada bulan Juli 1985, Kamar Dagang IndonesiaCommerce and the China Council for the Promotion of International trade (CCPIT) Perdagangandan Dewan Cina untuk Promosi Perdagangan Internasional (CCPIT)signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for the reestablishment of a directmenandatangani nota kesepahaman (MoU) untuk pembangunan kembali langsungtrade link between the two countries. perdagangan hubungan antara kedua negara. Five yearslater, it was on 8 August 1990 while Lima tahun kemudian, itu pada 8 Agustus 1990 sedangkanPremier Li Peng was visiting Indonesia, the Chinese and Indonesian foreign ministers PerdanaMenteri Li Peng mengunjungi Indonesia, menteri luar negeri Indonesia dan Cinasigned the Memorandum of Understanding on Restoration of Diplomatic Relations onmenandatangani Nota Kesepahaman tentang Pemulihan Hubungan Diplomatik padabehalf of each of his own government, and declared Sino-Indonesian diplomatic nama masing-masing pemerintah sendiri, dan menyatakan Sino-Indonesia diplomatik relations was officially restored as of that day. hubungan secara resmi dikembalikan pada hariitu. After that, the political and economic Setelah itu, politik dan ekonomirelations between the two countries had been normalized, Sino-Indonesian relations hubunganantara kedua negara telah dinormalkan, hubungan Sino-Indonesiahave seen all-round progress and developed rapidly. telah melihat semua kemajuan-bulat danberkembang pesat. Average annual growth rate of Rata-rata laju pertumbuhan tahunantrade reached 14.7 percent during 1990-2000. perdagangan mencapai 14,7 persen selama 1990-2000. Entering 21st century, the relations Memasuki abad ke-21, hubunganbetween the two countries have been in best time. antara kedua negara telah di waktu terbaik. InMay 2000, Foreign Minister Tang Pada bulan Mei 2000, Menteri Luar Negeri TangJiaxuan and Indonesian Foreign Minister Alwi Shihab signed in Beijing the Joint Jiaxuan danMenteri Luar Negeri Indonesia Alwi Shihab ditandatangani di Beijing Bersamastatement on the Course for Future Bilateral Cooperation between the People's pernyataan diKursus untuk Masa Depan Kerjasama Bilateral antara Rakyat yangRepublic of China and the Republic of Indonesia, and Memorandum of Understanding Republik Cina dan Republik Indonesia, dan Nota Kesepahamanon the Joint Committee of Bilateral Cooperation between the People's Republic of dalam KomiteBersama Kerjasama Bilateral antara Republik RakyatChina and Republic of Indonesia, which was the guideline of developing the relations China danRepublik Indonesia, yang merupakan pedoman pembinaan relasibetween two countries in 21st century. antara dua negara di abad ke-21. This showed that the twocountries reached Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kedua negara mencapaiconsensus on establishing and developing all-round cooperative relations based on konsensusmengenai pembentukan dan pengembangan koperasi bulat hubungan-semua berdasarkanlong-term stability, mutual trust and good neighbourliness. jangka panjang stabilitas, salingpercaya dan bertetangga baik.  Overview the history of economic relations between China and Indonesia since the Sekilassejarah hubungan ekonomi antara China dan Indonesia sejak establishment of diplomatic relations in 1950, the development of economic relationspembentukan hubungan diplomatik pada tahun 1950, pengembangan hubungan ekonomibetween two countries may be divided into three stages: antara dua negara dapat dibagi menjaditiga tahap:1. 1. Slowly development in the period of 1950-1966. Perlahan-lahan pembangunan di periode1950-1966. The trade relations between them Hubungan perdagangan antara merekawere characterised as small volume and simple structure of trade. yang dicirikan sebagai volumekecil dan struktur sederhana perdagangan.Table 1 Chinese trade with Indonesia during 1950-1966 (Unit: US$ ten thousand) Tabel 1perdagangan Cina dengan Indonesia selama 1950-1966 (Unit: US $ 10.000)Year Tahun1950 1955 1950 19551956 1960 1956 19601961 1965 1961 19651966 1966Export Ekspor 11.75 11.75206.28 206.28236.99 236.990.33 0.33Import Impor 22.56 22.56191.98 191.98225.20 225.2016.39 16.39Total Jumlah34.31 34.31398.26 398.26462.19 462.1916.72 16.72Source: Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations Trade 1984. Sumber: Almanak Perdagangan Hubungan Ekonomi Luar Negeri China 1984. No Tidak adaofficial data of 1967-1976 data resmi dari 1967-1976  Page 3   Page 3   Draft Only ± Not for Citation   Draft Hanya - Bukan untuk Kutipan  3 32. 2. Indirect trade through Hongkong and Singapore in the period of 1967-1984. Langsungperdagangan melalui Hongkong dan Singapura dalam periode 1967-1984. The Thenormal economic relations between China and Indonesia had been stopped for hubunganekonomi normal antara China dan Indonesia telah berhenti untuk nearly 20 years because the diplomatic relations between two countries suspended hampir 20tahun karena hubungan diplomatik antara kedua negara ditangguhkan
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