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  Baybayan, Jastin Louis R.2012103178BIO20-1/C4Homeo! #1 ã $%%&i'ation an( 'onne'tion o) bioe&e't!oni's an( biote'*no&o+y to e&e't!oni's an( 'ommuni'ations en+inee!in+*e stu(y o) bio&o+y a&so *as been t!ans)o!me( by e&e't!oni's. In t*e &ate 140s an( ea!&y10s, un(e!stan(in+ t*e mo&e'u&a! basis o) ne!e an( mus'&e )un'tion as a'*iee( it* t*e use o) *i+*-im%e(an'e am%&i)ie!s. *ose stu(ies &e( to a ne e!a o) uantitatie bio&o+y an( %!a'ti'a& '&ini'a& neu!os'ien'e. *e %at'* '&am%, *i'* a&&oe( !esea!'*e!s to measu!e t*e ioni' 'u!!ent t*!ou+* sin+&e ion '*anne&s +ae )u!t*e! insi+*t into ne!e a'tion. *ese stu(ies &e( (i!e't&y to t*!ee obe& !ies an( u&timate&y seen mo!e. *e e&e't!on mi'!os'o%eis a&so an eam%&e o) a%%&yin+ e&e't!oni's to bio&o+i'a& %!ob&ems. 5i!st (emonst!ate( in t*e 130s an( (ee&o%e( oe! t*e net (e'a(e, t*e e&e't!on mi'!os'o%e a&&oe( s'ientists to isua&ie t*e minis'u&e o!&( o) 'e&&s at an enti!e&y ne &ee& o) (etai&. 6u'* o) mo(e!n 'e&&  bio&o+y is bui&t on in)o!mation 'a%tu!e( )!om t*ese in(is%ensib&e too&s.ien t*e %!o)oun( im%a't e&e't!oni's *as *a( on me(i'ine an( bio&o+y in t*e %ast, it is easy to ima+ine t*at inte+!atin+ mo(e!n e&e't!oni's it* bio&o+y an( me(i'ine i&& !esu&t in eua&&y %!o)oun( uantum &ea%s. *e on+oin+ miniatu!iation o) semi'on(u'to! (ei'es is &ea(in+ to ne o%%o!tunities in biome(i'a& !esea!'* an( 'omme!'ia& me(i'a& a%%&i'ations. In me(i'ine, *ea&t*'a!e 'osts 'ou&( be (!asti'a&&y !e(u'e( an( %!esent&y unt!eatab&e (iseases 'ou&( be 'u!e(. *e me(i'a& %!ob&ems o) to(ay 'ou&( *ae 'ommon%&a'e so&utions in t*e )utu!e. anos'a&e bioe&e't!oni's i&& be an enab&e! )o! t*e (ee&o%ment o) mo&e'u&a!-base(  %e!sona&ie( me(i'ine. In %a!ti'u&a!, t*e use o) nanos'a&e e&e't!i'a& measu!ements i&& be im%o!tant in +enomi's an( %!oteomi's )o! i(enti)yin+ t*e )un'tion o) %!oteins an( t*ei! !ea'tion %at*ays insi(e 'e&&s, as e&& as on an( t*!ou+* 'e&& memb!anes.Bioe&e't!oni's is t*e a%%&i'ation o) e&e't!i'a& en+inee!in+ %!in'i%&es to bio&o+y, me(i'ine,  be*aio!, o! *ea&t*. Bioe&e't!oni's a(an'es ou! )un(amenta& 'on'e%ts, '!eates no&e(+e )o! mo&e'u&a! to o!+an systems &ee&s, an( (ee&o%s innoatie (ei'es o! %!o'esses )o! t*e  %!eention, (ia+nosis, an( t!eatment o) (isease in o!(e! to !e*abi&itate %atients an( im%!oe *ea&t*.Bioe&e't!oni' en+inee!s attem%t to 'ombine t*ei! no&e(+e o) bio&o+i'a& an( e&e't!i'a& systems to %!o(u'e ne ays to t!eat %atients. Bioen+inee!s *e&% '!eate an( ea&uate ne te'*no&o+y an( im%!oe t*e un(e!stan(in+ o) bio&o+i'a& systems, *i'* ma es t*em ina&uab&e to t*e me(i'a& 'ommunity.  Rea&-o!&( (ei'es an( systems a!e t*e eystone o) bioe&e't!oni' !esea!'* an( (ee&o%ment. Bioe&e't!oni' %!o(u'ts a!e (ee&o%e( usin+ see!a& met*o(s, i(eas, an( te'*niues, in'&u(in+ bioe&e't!oma+neti's, inst!umentation, neu!a& neto! s, !oboti's, an( senso! te'*no&o+ies.Onsite )a'i&ities )o! %!ototy%in+ an( testin+ inst!umentation systems, )ab!i'atin+ an( measu!in+ t*e %e!)o!man'e o) im%&antab&e (ei'es, an( bui&(in+ !oboti' %!ost*eses a!e !ea(i&y aai&ab&e. e senso!s an( senso! a!!ays a!e mi'!o)ab!i'ate( in a 2,000 s )t '&ean!oom.*e a%%&i'ation o) e&e't!oni's te'*no&o+y to bio&o+y an( me(i'ine is not ne, *oee! !esea!'* a'tiity in t*is 'one!+ent )ie&( is +!oin+ !a%i(&y. $ %!oy )o! a'tiity, es%e'ia&&y ina'a(emia, is %ub&i'ations. In o!(e! to assess bioe&e't!oni's !esea!'* a'tiity, an ana&ysis o)  %ub&i'ations as ma(e usin+ t*e 'ien'e Citation In(e 9%an(e(: ;CI9<, aai&ab&e t*!ou+* t*e =eb o) 'ien'e>. *e CI9 in'&u(es in)o!mation )!om mo!e t*an 10,000 o) t*e o!&(?s &ea(in+ s'*o&a!&y s'ien'e an( te'*ni'a& @ou!na&s in mo!e t*an 100 (is'i%&ines. It a&so 'ontains %a%e!s )!om oe! 110,000 'on)e!en'e %!o'ee(in+s. *e (atabase is u%(ate( ee &y an( 'ontains 'itations (atin+ ba' to 100. ub&i'ations t*at 'ontaine( t*e o!( Abioe&e't!oni' o! Abioe&e't!oni's in t*ei! tit&e o! abst!a't e!e i(enti)ie(. *e tota& numbe! o) su'* %a%e!s is 48, %ub&is*e( )!om 112 t*!ou+* Janua!y 200. It s*ou&( be note( t*at t*e abso&ute numbe! o) %ub&i'ations on bioe&e't!oni' to%i's ;it*out usin+ t*e te!m  bioe&e't!oni's in t*e tit&e o! abst!a't< is un(oubte(&y mu'* &a!+e! *oee!, t*is ana&ysis  %!oi(es a sam%&e t*at is be&iee( to be !e%!esentatie o) t*e !e&ate( a'tiities in t*e )ie&(.Re)e!en'esD*tt%D//.e'e.n'su.e(u/!esea!'*/bee/*tt%D//.s!'.o!+/'a&en(a!/e00342E/!oa(ma%%in+-)!ameo! .%() 
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