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IB ToK - Natural Sciences Guiding Questions

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IB TOK Natural sciences questions and answers. Great help for TOK essay.
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  DULWICH COLLEGE SHANGHAI THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE – NATURALSCIENCESfrom ToK Guide, IBO, 2! N #ur $ %&ie'&e%  T(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% re)e&# &o'&er#ed e*or# o' #(e + r# of (um '% #o %e r&( for u'der%# 'di' of #(e -or$d. Li/e '0 o#(er (um ' e'de 1our, #(e de1e$o+me'# of %&ie'#i& /'o-$ede form% -e3 -i#( more +r &#i& $, e1e' e1er0d 0, i'#ere%#% 'd &o'&er'%. T(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% re re&o'i4ed % mode$ for /'o-$ede o-i' #o m '0 f &#or%, +rime mo' -(i&( i% #(eir & + &i#0 #o e5+$ i' 'd m /e +re&i%e +redi&#io'%. T(e i')ue'&e of #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% +erme #e% mu&( of moder' $ife, for e5 m+$e, i' #(e -ide%+re d 'd ro-i' u%e of #e&('o$oie%. T(i% +romi'e'&e ( % $ed #o -ide 1 rie#0 of ##i#ude% #o- rd% #(e ' #ure, %&o+e 'd 1 $ue of #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e%. Di%&u%%io' of 6ue%#io'% $i/e #(e o'e% #( # fo$$o- 3ou# %&ie'#i& me#(odo$oie%, 'd #(e &o'#e5# i' -(i&( /i'd% of %&ie'#i& -or/ # /e +$ &e, r i%e% m '0 /'o-$ede i%%ue%. Nature of the sciences 7 W(i&( %u38e&#% doe% #(e #erm 9' #ur $ %&ie'&e%: i'&$ude or e5&$ude; Are #(ere '0 re0 re %; Do #(e%e re % &( 'e from o'e er #o 'o#(er, from o'e &u$#ure or #r di#io' #o 'o#(er; 7 S(ou$d #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% 3e re rded more % me#(od or more % %0%#em of /'o-$ede; Ho- doe% #(i% re$ #e #o -( # <oi'& r= me '# -(e' (e % id 9S&ie'&e i% 3ui$# of f &#% #(e - 0 (ou%e i% 3ui$# of 3ri&/%> 3u# ' &&umu$ #io' of f &#% i% 'o more%&ie'&e #( ' +i$e of 3ri&/% i% (ou%e:; To -( # e5#e'# do #(e '%-er% #o #(e%e 6ue%#io'% 1 r0 mo' #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e%; 7 Do #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% m /e '0 %%um+#io'% #( # re u'+ro1 3$e 30 %&ie'&e ?for e5 m+$e, #( # e1er0#(i' #( # ( ++e'% i% & u%ed, #( # $$ & u%e% re +(0%i& $@; If %o, -( # doe% #(i% im+$0 3ou# ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% % ' re of /'o-$ede; Natural sciences: Methods of gaining knowledge 7 W( # i% me '# 30 #(e 9%&ie'#i& me#(od:; I% #(ere %i'$e %&ie'#i& me#(od, u%ed i' $$ #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% 'd di%#i'&# from #(e me#(od% of #(e o#(er re % of /'o-$ede; To -( # e5#e'# doe% #(e %&ie'#i& me#(od 1 r0 i' di*ere'# &u$#ure% 'd er %; 7  To -( # e5#e'# do me#(od% 1 r0 -i#(i' #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e%; W( # e*e&#% mi(# %u&( 1 ri #io' ( 1e; For e5 m+$e, ( 1e 0ou e5+erie'&ed me#(odo$oi& $ di%+u#e% or &o'fu%io'% i' 0our o-' -or/ i' e5+erime'# $ %&ie'&e; W( # re #(e ro$e% of 1 riou% /i'd% of re %o'i' i' %&ie'&e; 7  To -( # e5#e'# do %&ie'#i%#% re$0 o' ei#(er &o'rmi' or f $%if0i' (0+o#(e%i%; I% ei#(er m ##er e1er %#r i(#for- rd; W( # doe% #(i% #e$$ u% 3ou# #(e ' #ure of #(e %&ie'#i& e'de 1our; 7 W( # re #(e im+$i& #io'% of #(e fo$$o-i' &$ im for #(e %+ir #io'% of ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% i' + r#i&u$ r 'd for /'o-$ede i' e'er $;O'e im of #(e +(0%i& $ %&ie'&e% ( % 3ee' #o i1e ' e5 &# +i&#ure of #(e m #eri $ -or$d. O'e &(ie1eme'# of +(0%i&% i' #(e #-e'#ie#( &e'#ur0 ( % 3ee' #o +ro1e #( # #(i% im i% u' ## i' 3$e.  &o3 Bro'o-%/i 7 I' #(e Di+$om <ror mme, rou+  %u38e&#% re de%i' #ed 9e5+erime'# $ %&ie'&e%:. W( # &ou'#% % ' e5+erime'#; C ' e5+erime'#% 3e u'der# /e' i' o#(er %u38e&#%; Are #(ere %ome 'e&e%% r0 &o'di#io'% for ' &#i1i#0 #o 3e ' e5+erime'#, for e5 m+$e, (0+o#(e%e%, d # , m 'i+u$ #io' of 1 ri 3$e%, o3%er1 #io'%, e'er $i4 #io'% 'd e5+e&# #io'% of ou#&ome%; 7 W( # re #(e %imi$ ri#ie% 'd di*ere'&e% i' me#(od% u%ed i' #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% i' &om+ ri%o' -i#( #(o%e u%ed i' #(e (um ' %&ie'&e%; To -( # e5#e'# do #(eir e$d% of %#ud0 o1er$ +; To -( # e5#e'# -ou$d i# 3e #rue #o % 0 #( # #(e (um ' %&ie'&e% ++e r $e%% %&ie'#i& 3e& u%e #(eir %u38e&# m ##er i% more &om+$e5; W( # di*ere'&e doe% i# m /e if i'%#e d of %#ud0i' #om% or +$ '#% -e re %#ud0i' &re #ure% -(o & ' #(i'/ 'd &#; 250591715.doc  DULWICH COLLEGE SHANGHAI7 W( # i% #(e ro$e of im i' #io' 'd &re #i1i#0 i' #(e %&ie'&e%; To -( # e5#e'# mi(# #(e formu$ #io' of (0+o#(e%i% or #(e i'1e'#io' of re%e r&( me#(od 3e &om+ r 3$e #o im i'i' 'd &re #i' -or/ of r#; 7 W( # /'o-$ede, if '0, -i$$ $- 0% rem i' 3e0o'd #(e & + 3i$i#ie% of %&ie'&e #o i'1e%#i #e or 1erif0; If #(ere i%, or & ' 3e, %u&( /'o-$ede, -(0 -i$$ i# $- 0% e$ude e*e&#i1e %&ie'#i& #re #me'#; Natural sciences and knowledge claims 7 W( # /i'd% of e5+$ ' #io'% do %&ie'#i%#% o*er, 'd (o- do #(e%e e5+$ ' #io'% &om+ re -i#( #(o%e o*ered i' o#(er re % of /'o-$ede; W( # re #(e di*ere'&e% 3e#-ee' #(eorie% 'd m0#(% % form% of e5+$ ' #io'; 7  To -( # e5#e'# & ' $$ #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% 3e u'der%#ood #(rou( #(e %#ud0 of 8u%# o'e %&ie'&e, for e5 m+$e, +(0%i&%; If 3io$o0 re$ie% o' &(emi%#r0, 'd &(emi%#r0 re$ie% o' +(0%i&%, & ' i# 3e % id #( # $$ ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% re redu&i3$e #o +(0%i&%; If %o, -( # -ou$d 3e #(e im+$i& #io'% of #(i% +o%i#io'; 7 I% %&ie'#i& /'o-$ede +rore%%i1e; H % %&ie'#i& /'o-$ede $- 0% ro-'; I' #(i% re%+e&#, (o- do #(e ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% &om+ re -i#( o#(er re % of /'o-$ede, for e5 m+$e, (i%#or0, #(e (um ' %&ie'&e%, e#(i&% 'd #(e r#%; Cou$d #(ere e1er 3e ' 9e'd: #o %&ie'&e; I' o#(er -ord%, &ou$d -e re &( +oi'# -(ere e1er0#(i' im+or# '# i' %&ie'#i& %e'%e i% /'o-'; If %o, -( # mi(# 3e #(e &o'%e6ue'&e% of #(i%; 7 I% i# &&ur #e #o % 0 #( # mu&( of %&ie'&e i'1e%#i #e% e'#i#ie% 'd &o'&e+#% 3e0o'd e1er0d 0 e5+erie'&e of #(e -or$d, %u&( % #(e ' #ure 'd 3e( 1iour of e$e&#rom 'e#i& e$d%, %u3 #omi& + r#i&$e%, or #(e %+ &e–#ime &o'#i'uum; Do #(e e'#i#ie% i' %&ie'#i%#% e5+$ ' #or0 mode$% 'd #(eorie% ?for e5 m+$e, Hi% 3o%o'%, %e$%( e'e%@ &#u $$0 e5i%#, or re #(e0 +rim ri$0 u%efu$ i'1e'#io'% for +redi&#i' 'd &o'#ro$$i' #(e ' #ur $ -or$d; W( # &o'%e6ue'&e% mi(# 6ue%#io'% 3ou# #(e re $i#0 of #(e%e e'#i#ie% ( 1e for #(e +u3$i& +er&e+#io' 'd u'der%# 'di' of %&ie'&e; Bu# if #(e0 re o'$0 &#io'% (o- i% i# #( # #(e0 & ' 0ie$d %u&( &&ur #e +redi&#io'% i' m '0 & %e%; 7 Ho- di*ere'# re #(e /'o-$ede &$ im% of #(o%e di%&i+$i'e% #( # re +rim ri$0 (i%#ori& $, %u&( % e1o$u#io' r0 3io$o0, &o%mo$o0, eo$o0 'd + $eo'#o$o0, from #(o%e #( # re +rim ri$0 e5+erime'# $, %u&( % +(0%i&% 'd &(emi%#r0; Natural sciences and values 7 Ho- doe% #(e %o&i $ &o'#e5# of %&ie'#i& -or/ *e&# #(e me#(od% 'd 'di'% of %&ie'&e; 7 I% %&ie'&e, or ou(# i# #o 3e, 1 $uefree; W( # im+$i& #io'% doe% 0our '%-er ( 1e for #(e reu$ #io' of %&ie'&e; For e5 m+$e> W(o %(ou$d de&ide -(e#(er + r#i&u$ r dire&#io'% i' re%e r&( re +ur%ued; W(o %(ou$d de#ermi'e +riori#ie% i' #(e fu'di' of re%e r&(; 7 S(ou$d %&ie'#i%#% 3e (e$d mor $$0 re%+o'%i3$e for #(e ++$i& #io'% of #(eir di%&o1erie%; I% #(ere '0 re of %&ie'#i& /'o-$ede #(e +ur%ui# of -(i&( i% mor $$0 u' &&e+# 3$e or mor $$0 re6uired; 7 I# ( % 3ee' rued #( # &er# i' di%&o1erie% ?%u&( % 6u '#um me&( 'i&%, &( o% #(eor0, Hei%e'3er% u'&er# i'#0 +ri'&i+$e, Ei'%#ei'% #(eor0 of re$ #i1i#0, D r-i'% #(eor0 of e1o$u#io'@ ( 1e ( d m 8or im+$i& #io'% for /'o-$ede ou#%ide #(eir immedi #e e$d. W(0 i% i# #( # %&ie'&e ( % #(e +o-er #o i'form #(i'/i' i' o#(er re % of /'o-$ede %u&( % +(i$o%o+(0 'd re$iio'; To -( # e5#e'# %(ou$d +(i$o%o+(0 'd re$iio' # /e & refu$ 'o#e of %&ie'#i& de1e$o+me'#%; Natural sciences and technology 7 I% %&ie'#i& /'o-$ede 1 $ued more for i#% o-' % /e or for #(e #e&('o$o0 #( # i# m /e% +o%%i3$e; I% #(ere '0 %&ie'&e #( # & ' 3e +ur%ued -i#(ou# #(e u%e of #e&('o$o0; 7  T(ere re %ome %&ie'#i& e$d% #( # de+e'd e'#ire$0 u+o' #e&('o$o0 for #(eir e5i%#e'&e, for e5 m+$e, %+e&#ro%&o+0, r dio or r 0 %#ro'om0. W( # re #(e /'o-$ede im+$i& #io'% of #(i%; Cou$d #(ere 3e +ro3$em% of /'o-$ede #( # re u'/'o-' 'o-, 3e& u%e #(e #e&('o$o0 'eeded #o re1e $ #(em doe% 'o# e5i%# 0e#; Natural sciences: Metaphor and reality 7 If ' #ur $ %&ie'&e% re de'ed % i'1e%#i #i' #(e ' #ur $ -or$d, -( # i% me '# 30 9' #ur $: or 9' #ure: i' #(i% &o'#e5#; W( # di*ere'&e mi(# i# m /e #o %&ie'#i& -or/ 250591715.doc  DULWICH COLLEGE SHANGHAI if ' #ure -ere #o 3e re rded % m &(i'e ?for e5 m+$e, % &$o&/-or/ me&( 'i%m@ or % ' or 'i%m ?%u&( % i' %ome i'#er+re# #io'% of #(e G i (0+o#(e%i%@; Ho- u%efu$ re #(e%e me# +(or%; 7 Doe% %&ie'#i& $ 'u e 'd 1o& 3u$ r0 ( 1e +rim ri$0 de%&ri+#i1e or ' i'#er+re# #i1e fu'&#io'; Co'%ider (ere e5+re%%io'% %u&( % 9 r#i&i $ i'#e$$ie'&e:, 9e$e&#ri& &urre'#:, 9' #ur $ %e$e&#io': 'd 9&o'&e'#r #io' r die'#:. 250591715.doc
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