im.y-wr.t (aA) n p.t and tA-wr (aA) n tA in the solar circuit: data from the Coffin Texts

im.y-wr.t (aA) n p.t and tA-wr (aA) n tA in the solar circuit: data from the Coffin Texts
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  The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology  󰀹󰀸 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀲), 󰀱󰀸󰀵–󰀹󰀴ISSN 󰀰󰀳󰀰󰀷-󰀵󰀱󰀳󰀳 IM.Y-WR.&   ( a  A ) N P.&   AND &  A -WR  ( a  A ) N &  A  IN THE SOLAR CIRCUIT: DATA FROM THE COFFIN TEXTS * By   CARLOS GRACIA ZAMACONA Coffin Text instances of the expressions im.y-wr.t  ( aA ) and tA-wr   ( aA ) in the context of the solar circuit are discussed. In this corpus, these terms consistently follow a geographical frame of orientation that is the same in the Underworld as in the real world, contrary to other basic human functions which are inverted in the Underworld. More specifically, the addition of the ‘indirect genitives’ n p.t / n tA  to these two terms respectively indicates that the earth is the spatial point of reference during the underworld  journey, whilst the sky plays the same role during the journey in the world of the living. T󰁨󰁩󰁳 article discusses a special use of the spatial reference points im.y-wr.t   󰀱  and tA-wr    󰀲  in the context of the solar circuit in the Coffin Texts: 󰀳             im.y-wr.t -( aA )- n- p.t  ‘the (great) starboard (i.e. right side) of the sky’ and         tA-wr  -( aA )- n-tA  ‘the (great) port side (i.e. left side) of the earth’. As is well known, the first part of these expressions mean respectively west and east, since Egyptians oriented themselves looking southwards; 󰀴  this identification is explicit in CT   V, 󰀱󰀴󰀴a. 󰀵  The terms im.y-wr.t  and tA-wr   seem to be nautical in srcin, their meaning being extended to architectural and topographical domains 󰀶  through conceptual association: starboard > right > west *  I thank the anonymous referees for their useful remarks; also T. Dobbin-Bennett for proofreading and commenting on the text, and S. Sullivan for additional corrections. 󰀱   Wb . I, 󰀷󰀳.󰀶–󰀱󰀳. 󰀲   Wb . V, 󰀲󰀳󰀰–󰀱. 󰀳  For a general view, see P. Wallin, Celestial Cycles: Astronomical Concepts of Regeneration in the Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts  (USE 󰀱; Uppsala, 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀲) and S. Bickel, ‘Die Jenseitsfahrt des Re nach Zeugen der Sarg-texte’, in A. Brodbeck (ed.), Ein ägyptisches Glasperlenspiel: Ägyptologische Beiträge für Erik Hornung aus seinem Schülerkreis  (Berlin, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀸), 󰀴󰀱–󰀵󰀶. 󰀴  G. Posener, Sur l’orientation et l’ordre des points cardinaux chez les Egyptiens  (NAWG 󰀲; Göttingen, 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀵), 󰀶󰀹–󰀷󰀸. 󰀵  Very rare is CT   IV, 󰀴󰀰e,  gs im.y-wr.t  ‹ n › mnH.yt  (Sq󰀱C), which appears as a variant for  gs iAb.t (  y ) n mnH.yt  (P. Gard. III). 󰀶  E. Lefébure, ‘Les quatre côtés d’une barque’, Sphinx  󰀹 (󰀱󰀹󰀰󰀶), 󰀱󰀸–󰀱󰀹; P. Lacau, ‘Textes religieux’, RT   󰀳󰀰 (󰀱󰀹󰀰󰀸), nº 󰀳󰀵, line 󰀷; H. Grapow, Religiöse Urkunden  (= Urk . V) (Leipzig, 󰀱󰀹󰀱󰀵–󰀱󰀷), II, 󰀵󰀸 n. 󰀸, 󰀶󰀲 n. 󰀳, 󰀷󰀵 nn. 󰀲–󰀳; K. Sethe, ‘Zur Komposition des Totenbuchspruches für das Herbeibringen der Fähre (Kap. 󰀹󰀹. Einleitung)’, ZÄS 󰀵󰀴 (󰀱󰀹󰀱󰀸), 󰀳; A. Erman, Reden, Rufe und Lieder auf Gräberbildern des Alten Reiches  (APAW 󰀱󰀹󰀱󰀸/󰀱󰀵; Berlin, 󰀱󰀹󰀱󰀹), 󰀵󰀳–󰀵; C. Boreux, ‘Les expressions imy-wr.t et tA-wr  ’, in Recueil d’études égyptologiques dédiées à la mémoire de Jean-François Champollion  (Paris, 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀲), 󰀴󰀶–󰀵󰀶; K. Sethe, Die aegyptischen Ausdrücke für rechts und links und die Hieroglyphenzeichen für Westen und Osten: Ein Beitrag zur Urgeschichte der Aegypter   (NGWG 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀲/󰀲; Göttingen, 󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀳), 󰀲󰀳󰀲; H. Junker, Gîza , VI: Die Mastabas des nfr (Nefer), kdfjj (Kedfi), kAHjf   (Ka H  jef) und die westlich anschließenden Grabanlagen (Vienna, 󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀳), 󰀲󰀱; H. Kees, ‘Die Phylen und ihre Vorsteher im Dienst der Tempel und Totenstiftungen’, Orientalia  󰀱󰀷 (󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀸), 󰀷󰀳; H. Junker, Gîza , X: Der Friedhof südlich der Cheopspyramide. Westteil (Vienna, 󰀱󰀹󰀵󰀱), 󰀷󰀱; R. Grieshammer, Das Jenseitsgericht in den Sargtexten  (ÄA 󰀲󰀰; Wiesbaden, 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀰), 󰀱󰀱󰀷–󰀱󰀹; A. M. Roth, Egyptian Phyles in the Old Kingdom: The Evolution of a System of Social Organization  (SAOC 󰀴󰀸; Chicago, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀱), especially 󰀴󰀶–󰀸 and 󰀵󰀲–󰀹 for the nautical terms in the Coffin Texts.  󰀱󰀸󰀶 CARLOS GRACIA ZAMACONA  JEA  󰀹󰀸 (for im.y-wr.t ) and port side > left > east (for tA-wr  ). 󰀷   im.y-wr.t  and tA-wr   most frequently occur in the Coffin Texts without a governed term, 󰀸  although they are occasionally followed by a suffix, 󰀹  or a direct or indirect genitive. 󰀱󰀰  The latter case, studied here, with n p.t  and n tA , is found in the Coffin Texts primarily in Spell 󰀱󰀸 and related spells, and poses a problem of interpretation. Occurrences are distributed as follows: T󰁡󰁢󰁬󰁥 󰀱 Distribution of    im.y-wr.t / tA-wr n p.t / tA n p.tn tAim.y-wr.t 󰀴 󰀱󰀱 󰀱 󰀱󰀲 im.y-wr.t-aA 󰀱 󰀱󰀳 󰀲 󰀱󰀴 tA-wr  󰀱 󰀱󰀵 󰀰 tA-wr-aA 󰀲 󰀱󰀶 󰀴 󰀱󰀷  Omitting for now consideration of the element aA , 󰀱󰀸  an opposition between im.y-wr.t n p.t  and tA-wr n tA  can be observed, for contextual reasons; the spells where these terms appear, followed by an indirect genitive with  p.t  or tA , are CT   Spells [󰀱󰀸], [󰀳󰀴󰀳], [󰀳󰀴󰀴], [󰀴󰀱󰀴], and [󰀴󰀶󰀹], and they all deal with the underworld journey. The full picture of the solar circuit is described in the aforementioned CT   Spell [󰀱󰀸] (B󰀱P) ( CT   I, 󰀵󰀳d–󰀵󰀴j): 󰀱󰀹   󰀷  It is assumed that these terms are used for right and left in the context studied here (and other similar contexts), the standard terms being imn  for ‘right’ and iAb  for ‘left’. 󰀸   im.y-wr.t : CT   I, 󰀱󰀹󰀶g; CT   IV, 󰀱󰀴b, 󰀱󰀴d, 󰀱󰀶󰀴g, 󰀳󰀷󰀹d; CT   V, 󰀸󰀴b, 󰀲󰀲󰀷d, 󰀲󰀲󰀸c, 󰀲󰀲󰀹b, 󰀲󰀳󰀰a, 󰀲󰀳󰀰j, 󰀲󰀳󰀱f, 󰀲󰀳󰀲b; CT   VII, 󰀱󰀳󰀶i; im.y-wr.t-aA : CT   I, 󰀱󰀵󰀷f; CT   III, 󰀳󰀲󰀲 a; CT   V, 󰀱󰀴󰀳b, 󰀱󰀴󰀴a, 󰀱󰀶󰀶e; CT   VI, 󰀱󰀵󰀰d, 󰀲󰀸󰀵h, 󰀳󰀸󰀲p, and 󰀳󰀸󰀷x; tA-wr  : CT   IV, 󰀱󰀵a, 󰀱󰀶󰀴f; CT   V, 󰀸󰀴d, 󰀸󰀵a, 󰀲󰀲󰀷d, 󰀲󰀲󰀸c, 󰀲󰀲󰀹b, 󰀲󰀳󰀰a, 󰀲󰀳󰀰j, 󰀳󰀲󰀱g and 󰀲󰀳󰀲b; tA-wr-aA : CT   I, 󰀱󰀵󰀷f, III, 󰀳󰀰󰀶e; CT   IV, 󰀱󰀴b, 󰀱󰀴d; CT   V, 󰀱󰀴󰀴a; CT   VI, 󰀲󰀴󰀶g, 󰀲󰀸󰀵h, 󰀳󰀸󰀲q, and 󰀳󰀸󰀷y. 󰀹   im.y-wr.t : CT   V, 󰀹󰀷a ( im.y.i-wr.t ) and 󰀹󰀷a/󰀱󰀱󰀸 ( im.y.s-wr.t ); im.y-wr.t-aA : CT   VI, 󰀶󰀴i ( .s ) and 󰀲󰀸󰀰 g ( .f  ); tA-wr  : CT   V, 󰀹󰀷b ( tA-wr.i ), 󰀹󰀷d ( tA-wr.i ), and 󰀹󰀷 d/󰀱󰀱󰀸 ( tA-wr.i ); tA-wr-aA : CT   VI, 󰀲󰀷󰀹o ( tA-wr-aA.k ) and 󰀲󰀸󰀰f ( tA-wr-aA.f  ). 󰀱󰀰  Direct genitives: im.y-wr.t-aA : CT   VI, 󰀳󰀰󰀰h ( mnH.wty ); tA-wr-aA : CT   VI, 󰀳󰀸󰀷d ( mHn ); see D. Meeks and C. Favard-Meeks, La vie quotidienne des dieux égyptiens (Paris, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀳), 󰀱󰀷󰀳. Indirect genitives: im.y-wr.t : CT   IV, 󰀴󰀰e ( n mnH.yt ), 󰀳󰀵󰀷b ( n p.t / n tA ), 󰀳󰀶󰀸c ( n.t p.t ); CT   V, 󰀲󰀴󰀶a ( n p.t ) and 󰀳󰀸󰀷e (n p.t ); im.y-wr.t-aA : CT   I, 󰀵󰀴f ( n p.t ); CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷c ( n tA ), 󰀳󰀵󰀷d ( n tA ); CT   VI, 󰀳󰀸󰀷 j ( im.y-wr.t-aA.t n mHn ; see D. Meeks and C. Favard-Meeks, La vie quotidienne , 󰀱󰀷󰀳); tA-wr  : CT   V, 󰀳󰀸󰀷f ( n p.t ); tA-wr-aA : CT   I 󰀵󰀴g ( n tA ); CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷b ( n tA / n p.t ), 󰀳󰀵󰀷c ( n tA ), 󰀳󰀶󰀸d ( n p.t ); CT   V, 󰀲󰀴󰀶a ( n tA ). 󰀱󰀱   CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷b, 󰀳󰀶󰀸c; CT   V, 󰀲󰀴󰀶a, 󰀳󰀸󰀷e. 󰀱󰀲   CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷b. 󰀱󰀳   CT   I, 󰀵󰀴f. 󰀱󰀴   CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷c and d. 󰀱󰀵   CT   V, 󰀳󰀸󰀷f. 󰀱󰀶   CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷b, 󰀳󰀶󰀸 d. 󰀱󰀷   CT   I, 󰀵󰀴g ; CT   IV, 󰀳󰀵󰀷b, 󰀳󰀵󰀷c; CT   V, 󰀲󰀴󰀶a. 󰀱󰀸  Generally, its presence is associated with the determinative  . 󰀱󰀹  J. A. Wilson, ‘Funeral Services of the Egyptian Old Kingdom’,  JNES  󰀳 (󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀴), 󰀲󰀰󰀹 n. 󰀴󰀴; L. Speleers, Textes des cercueils du Moyen Empire égyptien  (Brussels, 󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀷), 󰀱󰀷󰀴–󰀵, 󰀱󰀸󰀷–󰀸, 󰀲󰀴󰀵, pls xlvii, lxxxi; M. Heerma van Voss, De oudste versie van Dodenboek 󰀱󰀷a: Coffin Texts spreuk 󰀳󰀳󰀵a  (Leiden, 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀳), 󰀲󰀹 n. 󰀳; E. Graefe, Untersuchungen zur Wortfamilie bjA -  (Cologne, 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀱), 󰀴󰀵; J. Assmann and M. Bommas,  Altägyptische Totenliturgien , I: Totenliturgien in den Sargtexten des Mittleren Reiches (Heidelberg, 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀲), 󰀱󰀱󰀵–󰀱󰀸. This is not discussed in P. Wallin, Celestial Cycles .  󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀲   IM.Y-WR.&   ( a A ) N P.&   AND &  A -WR  ( a A ) N &  A  󰀱󰀸󰀷 A. hA wsir N pn   DA.k p.t nmi.k biA.yt   dwA Tw im.yw S nxA mAA.sn Tw   wbn.k m Ax.t iAb.tt   im.yw dwA.t Hr di.t xa.w.k nfr. ( w )  pr.k   󰀲󰀰   m  ( m ) sk.tt hA.k   󰀲󰀱   m  ( m ) anD.t  ( m ) wD.t. ( n ) n.k Hr Ds.f nb pa.wt B. hA wsir N pn    prr.k Hr im.y-wr.t aA n p.t   hAA.k Hr tA-wr.t aA n tA   mm nw n nTr.w im.yw Sms.w wsir    m Htp zp 2 xr ra im.y p.t A. O, this Osiris N! May you cross the sky (and) travel around the firmament! May those in the lake nxA  adore you (and) see you when you appear in the eastern horizon, as those in the Duat permit 󰀲󰀲  your appearances perfectly! May you go out from the msk.tt  bark (and) go down (= embark) into the manD.t  bark, being what Horus, the master of the elite, has himself commanded to you!(B) O, this Osiris N! It is before Re, the one in the sky, 󰀲󰀳  that you go up towards the right side (= west) of the sky  (and) that you go down towards the left side (= east) of the earth , among those gods in Osiris’ retinue, in peace — twice. The first part (A) is complex. First, there is an alternation between the verbs DAi  and nmi . The first one denotes navigation (determinative  ), the second land travel (determinative  , and determinative   for the object). Nevertheless, they both refer to the journey through the sky. Secondly, there are two ‘agents’ that interact with the dead. The first agent, im.yw S nxA , is basically an experient (not a true agent): 󰀲󰀴  they see the dead when he appears in the East ( wbn ) like the sun — moreover they adore him, as they do with the sun. The second agent, also a plural, im.yw dwA.t , is a true agent: they cause the deceased’s appearances; a punctual verb, 󰀲󰀵  in the progressive and with a plural object, creates a sense of habitual action. This action happens when the deceased goes out from the msk.tt  bark to go into (= embark into) the manD.t bark. This refers to the eastern change of barks, since the im.yw S nxA  are in the eastern side of the sky: 󰀲󰀶  they see the dead appearing and they adore him. The second part (B) splits the circuit into two: going up and going down. The reference point for going up is the ‘great starboard of the sky’, i.e. the right side of the sky, the west. The preposition, Hr  , expresses in this case the destination of going up and not the point of departure (neither the path nor the instrument); the dead goes 󰀲󰀰  B󰀱󰀵C:  prr.k . 󰀲󰀱  B󰀱󰀵C and B󰀶C: hAA.k . In B󰀶C an A  has been added later (cf. CT   I, 󰀵󰀴 n. 󰀳). 󰀲󰀲  F. Junge, Studien zum mittelägyptischen Verbum  (Göttingen, 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀰), 󰀳󰀴. 󰀲󰀳  An epithet of Re. See E. Edel, ‘Untersuchungen zur Phraseologie der ägyptischen Inschriften des Alten Reiches’, MDAIK   󰀱󰀳 (󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀴), 󰀶󰀲; E. Hornung, Das Amduat: Die Schrift des verborgenen Raumes  (ÄA 󰀷; Wiesbaden, 󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀳–󰀷), II, 󰀱󰀰󰀰. 󰀲󰀴  See G. Lazard, L’actance  (Paris, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀴), 󰀳󰀹, 󰀶󰀵, 󰀱󰀲󰀹–󰀳󰀰, 󰀱󰀵󰀲. 󰀲󰀵  R. I. Binnick, Time and the Verb  (Oxford, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀱), 󰀵󰀴󰀷. 󰀲󰀶  H. Junker, Die Onurislegende  (Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Phil.-hist. Kl. 󰀵󰀹/󰀱–󰀲; Vienna, 󰀱󰀹󰀴󰀷), 󰀷󰀸–󰀹, discusses the eastern location of this place, using data from the Pyramid Texts. See also H. Altenmüller, ‘ “Messersee”, “gewundener Wasserlauf”, und “Flammensee”: Eine Untersuchung zur Gleich-setzung und Lesung der drei Bereiche’, ZÄS  󰀹󰀲 (󰀱󰀹󰀶󰀶), 󰀸󰀹; W. Barta, Die Bedeutung der Pyramidentexte für den verstorbenen König   (MÄS 󰀳󰀹; Berlin, 󰀱󰀹󰀸󰀱), 󰀸󰀸 n. 󰀶󰀳 ( mr nxA ), 󰀸󰀸 n. 󰀶󰀷 ( S nxA ); R. Krauss,  Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten  (ÄA 󰀵󰀹; Wiesbaden, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀷), 󰀱󰀴–󰀸󰀵, esp. 󰀳󰀴–󰀷.  󰀱󰀸󰀸 CARLOS GRACIA ZAMACONA  JEA  󰀹󰀸 up towards  the west. There is nothing strange in this interpretation of the preposition Hr  , which is able to express the ‘conclusive’ spatial adjunct (‘towards’), as opposed to illative (with m  ‘into’) and allative (with r   ‘to’), the three possible spatial adjuncts for inanimate entities. 󰀲󰀷  Stauder-Porchet describes the use of this preposition in a similar way when she says that Hr  , after the verb  pri and with inanimates, constitutes ‘un SP [syntagme prépositionnel] de positionnement sans impliquer de délimitation d’un espace’, 󰀲󰀸  and after the verb hAi , with inanimates and expressing provenance, ‘un espace non-délimité’. 󰀲󰀹  This spatial feature enables the preposition Hr   to express the ‘unlimited’ spaces of provenance, course (path), and destination, i.e. ‘srcinating’ (as opposed to elative and ablative), ‘coursive’ 󰀳󰀰  (as opposed to endo-coursive and exo-coursive), and the already mentioned ‘conclusive’, respectively; the same is true for adverbial predicates of situation, where Hr   expresses the essive case, as opposed to inessive, abessive, and adessive. 󰀳󰀱  The pertinence of this feature for this question is strengthened by the notion of region  proposed by Svorou in her typological approach to the linguistic expression of space, as she defines it: ‘(…) an area adjacent to a LM [landmark] in which specific spatial description is valid’. 󰀳󰀲  In the case of spatial adjuncts with inner space, the motion can be done into ( m ) (illative), to ( r  ) (allative), or towards ( Hr  ) it (conclusive). Besides the verbs expressing vertical motion downwards ( hAi  ‘go down’, xr   ‘fall’, xni / sxni  ‘alight’) or upwards (  pri  ‘go up’,  pAi  ‘fly off’) with which ‘conclusive’- Hr   spatial adjuncts are naturally better rendered by the srcinal meaning of the preposition ‘on’ or ‘upon’, there are also occurrences of this kind of adjunct with other verbs, even if the adjunct is not included in the verbal valency, for example: CT   VI, 󰀱󰀰󰀶k (B󰀱󰀰Ca): DA ( i ).( w ). s mn [ D  ] .s Hr r. {  f  }‹ k › 󰀳󰀳  ‘(and) she will extend her breast towards  your mouth’. B󰀹C has the preposition r  , for the allative ‘to’, instead of the ‘conclusive’. It is crucial to note that the preposition used in the Pyramid Texts parallels for this passage is tp  ‘upon, onto, towards’, very close (in its composite form tp-m ) to Hr  , both etymologically and semantically. A Coffin Text passage is particularly enlightening on this point, CT   IV, 󰀲󰀱󰀸a–󰀲󰀱󰀹a, due to its variation between tp  and tp-m , with the contextual semantic contrast of a ‘coursive’- Hr  ; this may illustrate the more specific ‘conclusive’ value for tp  and tp-m  when compared to Hr  , which is a much more polysemic preposition: T󰀱Ca, B󰀹Cb, H, B󰀳C, 󰀳󰀴  Sq󰀱C, Sq󰀷C, L󰀱NY: wDA.i Hr wA.t rx.t.n.i tp-m iw n. (  y ) mAa.tyw  I proceeded on (= via)  the way that I know towards  the Island of the Righteous Ones. 󰀲󰀷  See C. Gracia Zamacona, ‘Space, Time, and Abstract Relations in the Coffin Texts’, ZÄS  󰀱󰀳󰀷 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰), § 󰀱.󰀲, and C. Gracia Zamacona, ‘The Spatial Adjunct in Middle Egyptian: Data from the Coffin Texts’, MOSAIKjournal   󰀱 (󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀰), 󰀸 (ex. 󰀵) and 󰀲󰀸 (table 󰀸). 󰀲󰀸  J. Stauder-Porchet, La préposition en égyptien de la première phase: Approche sémantique  (AH 󰀲󰀱; Basel, 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀹), 󰀱󰀷󰀰. 󰀲󰀹  Stauder-Porchet, La préposition , 󰀲󰀰󰀵. 󰀳󰀰  Or perlative: Stauder-Porchet, La préposition , 󰀱󰀰󰀴 with n. 󰀲󰀴󰀶 and ex. 󰀷󰀷, considers this to be an effet de sens  depending highly on the context. 󰀳󰀱  See Gracia Zamacona, ZÄS  󰀱󰀳󰀷, § 󰀱. 󰀳󰀲  S. Svorou, The Grammar of Space  (Typological Studies in Language 󰀲󰀵; Amsterdam, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀴), § 󰀲.󰀱.󰀱. 󰀳󰀳  Restoration assured by Pyr  . §§ 󰀳󰀸󰀱, 󰀱󰀱󰀱󰀹, 󰀱󰀴󰀲󰀷 (with the preposition tp ), according to R. O. Faulkner, The  Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts , II (Warminster, 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀷), 󰀱󰀴󰀸 n. 󰀱󰀰. 󰀳󰀴  With nominal subject.  󰀲󰀰󰀱󰀲   IM.Y-WR.&   ( a A ) N P.&   AND &  A -WR  ( a A ) N &  A  󰀱󰀸󰀹 T󰀱Cb, B󰀵C, B󰀹Ca, Sq󰀱Sq, 󰀳󰀵  M󰀴C, M󰀸C, M󰀷C, M󰀵󰀷C, M󰀱NY, 󰀳󰀶  BH󰀱Br: Sm.i Hr wA.wt rx .( w ) t.n.i tp-m iw n .(  y ) mAa.tyw  I went on (= via)  the ways that I know towards  the Island of the Righteous Ones.T󰀱Be, T󰀲Be, T󰀳Be: Sm.i Hr wA.t rx.t.n.i tp-m iw n .(  y ) mAa.tyw  I went on (= via)  the way that I know towards  the Island of the Righteous Ones.Sq󰀴Sq: DA ( i ) N     pn Hr wA.t rx.t.n.f tp iw n mAa.tyw  This N traversed on (= via)  the way that he knows towards  the Island of the Righteous Ones.  The use of Hr   here as ‘coursive’, independently of the translation, is slightly different due to the fact that wA.t  (as other entities 󰀳󰀷  in Egyptian) has no inner space, and thus the opposition ‘endo-coursive’/‘exo-coursive’ is precluded, although the basic value is the same for Hr  . 󰀳󰀸  Another well-known occurrence of the ‘conclusive’ is the expression ao  + Hr   + god ‘enter towards  a god’. 󰀳󰀹  The ‘conclusive’ value of the preposition Hr   should not be surprising on typological grounds, as it derives from Hr   ‘face’, 󰀴󰀰  since Svorou remarks that the face as a source of   spatial gram  is cross-linguistically used not only for the front region, but also for the allative (i.e. a destination). 󰀴󰀱  The interpretation of CT   Spell [󰀱󰀸] proposed here is thus as follows: the whole  journey through the sky is described in CT   [󰀱󰀸]; the dead begins ascending at the east (like the sun) and stops doing so at the west. The reference point for going down is the ‘great port side of the earth’, i.e. the left side of the earth, the East. But why ‘of the earth’ now and not ‘of the sky’? It seems that, since the action is located in the Underworld, the reference point changes: there it is not the sky that is suitable for orientating oneself, but the earth, which is now over the observer’s head. 󰀴󰀲  Apparently, one goes up to the West and then starts to go down to the east. In other words, in this  passage , the going up represents the journey across the sky and, on the contrary, the going down represents the underworld journey. Faulkner, when commenting on the passage ( CT   I, 󰀵󰀴f–g) which he translated as ‘You shall go up upon the great west side of the sky and go down upon the great east side of the earth (...)’, remarked on the apparent contradiction: ‘This unexpected reversal of the points of the compass is incomprehensible. We would expect the deceased to go up on the east side of the earth and down on the west as does the sun. Perhaps we have here a blunder in an early copy which no-one has noticed or at least attempted to correct’. 󰀴󰀳  As a matter of fact, the problem is the apparent lack of coherent meaning 󰀳󰀵   rx.t .‹ n ›. i . 󰀳󰀶   niw.t  instead of iw . 󰀳󰀷  For the concept, see R. W. Langacker, Cognitive Grammar   (Oxford, 󰀲󰀰󰀰󰀸), 󰀹󰀸. 󰀳󰀸  Gracia Zamacona, MOSAIKjournal   󰀱, § 󰀳. 󰀳󰀹   Wb . I, 󰀲󰀳󰀱.󰀹. 󰀴󰀰  Stauder-Porchet, La préposition , 󰀲󰀶 n. 󰀲󰀲. 󰀴󰀱  Svorou, The Grammar of Space , 󰀷󰀱 (table 󰀱); for the term ‘gram’, see ibid., 󰀳󰀱. 󰀴󰀲  Which fits well with the existence of a counter-sky as the sign of the upside-down sky                       (N󰀱 inverted). See K. Sethe, ‘Altägyptische Vorstellungen vom Lauf der Sonne’, SPAW   󰀲󰀲 (󰀱󰀹󰀲󰀸), 󰀳–󰀲󰀸. For a similar expression ( wp.t tA ) in the Pfortenbuch , see J. Zeidler, Pfortenbuchstudien  (GOF IV/󰀳󰀶; Wiesbaden, 󰀱󰀹󰀹󰀹), II, 󰀲󰀷󰀵. 󰀴󰀳  R.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts , I (Warminster, 󰀱󰀹󰀷󰀳), 󰀱󰀱 n. 󰀱 ( CT   Spell [󰀱󰀸]).
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