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In the eye of the beholder? An eye-gazing experiment on emergent leadership and followership in team interactions

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Integrating evolutionary signaling theory with a social attention approach, we argue that individuals possess a fast, automated mechanism for detecting leadership signals in fellow humans that is reflected in higher visual attention toward emergent
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      U    N   C   O    R    R    E   C    T    E    D    P    R   O   O    F  HIF KHJHO NNN (2017) NNN-NNN   CEJJI IJI L J DHJ  HIF KHJHO  EKH EF: MMM.ILH.E $ J O E< J EH? A O-JH NFHJ E HJ HIF  JJHJEI E #. 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"H <<JI EKHH IK JJ  HJ HI HL  H KH E< UNJEI J <HJ HI. E-LH LEH OII J JJ HJ HI IEM  H EKJ E< -JL IJKHI  II FIIL < NFHIIEI J E-HI.  IKII JEHJ  JEEE -HJEI <EH HJ HIF HIH  JI. “ " %# $5'4' # 6 $; 56 9#6%*+. ”  (E BHH)$  I E< HEKFI, K  EK, H  <EEMH -HHI H <EH JKHO KI E< JH <KJEJO <EH IELIE EEHJE I (BII, 1954; , EIE, &  KJ,2009; KHJ & H, 2004;  KJ, 2006; IEHEK, IH,& #E, 2009). #,  JO HII HEKFI, IE LK-I JOFO H I HI; JI LKI H FHL O EJ-HI I J ELH HIF HIFEIJI (#E, CKHFO, & #E,1994). HI HIH E HJ HIF I  LO -VK O J  “ HJ FHIE ”  FHIFJL JJ LIJJI HJHI' JHJI  HJHIJI (, 2017), EO  <M IJKI <E-KI E J HE E< JEI ME FO JJJE JE HIF II. II IKHFHI, L JJ J EFJ JE EHHJO <H ME I J -<EH H, EH ME J I MEHJ <EEM, I IIJ JE E FHJE<  <<JL HEKF MJ H IKHLL I J HEKFI H-JHP O <<JL HIF (FI, #E, "HE, &  KJ,2012).A LEKJEHO I FHIFJL E HIF IKIJI JJLKI ELO HJ HIF II M MH HHI E< EE HIF  IJH LHEJI  JJ EIHLHI IEK  JE JO HIF JI II ("HE, FI, &  KJ,2017). JO,  EJ FHIFJL E I IIKI JJJI E II VEM HJO <HE J HJ HI EH JJ LHEJ  E EJ IIHO LEL LH IJHK-JEI (,  KGK, & "IIH, 2017). $, HIH IIEM JJ FEF IH HIF FEJJ JE EJHI I E H E< IJJ KI 1 IK I FOI J (K & C, 2004;JKF, AH, HKIJ, & +EJ, 2013) EH < HJHIJI (J ., 2013; K & AO, 2008). NFHJ L IKIJIJJ JI II O L LEL I KHJ JEHI E< EF-J  FEMH, M  JKH IEK FHEEJ HEKF <<JLII(BM & EEHEL, 2007; CIJELE, +EFFH, & EH, 2017; EEHEL,IEP, "EH, & #, 2005).#EMLH,  IE IJKJEI IJJ II E< EFJ  FEMHO EJ HJO JHIJ JE J IHFJE E< HIF KI -HIF H I  EKJE E< O JHJEI (-B,2006; -B, HE, & LO, 2007). I I JJ -LKI I LHEKI II IKJEKIO, IK I FOI H-JHIJI, ELH EO K, EH LH KI,  EIHLHI HE<HEJ MJ J  E< <HH HIF <HE J LH-JO E< <<HJ EFJ II. $J L JI JJ FE-F  NJHJ HIF KI (.., FHL HIJ LEH) ⁎ CEHHIFE KJEH.  E/#+ #&&4'55:  <..HFEJJ@LK. (.#. "HFEJJ)JJFI://E.EH/10.1016/.GK.2017.11.003L 23 KO 2017; L  HLI <EH 8 ELH 2017; AFJ 10 ELH 2017AL E NNN1048-9843/ R 2017. EHJ CEKJE      U    N   C   O    R    R    E   C    T    E    D    P    R   O   O    F  F.H. G'466 '6 #. T*' L'#&'45*+ Q#46'4;  (2017) -  <HE MJ KJ IF FI JJ IEM  FHIE I LH-EKI HIF KI IKJEKIO,  JJ JI FHFJEI FHJH FHEJEJOFJO HJI (IO, K, & K, 2017). J, MHIIK FHFJK IKHI E< HIF O FJKH  HJH EFNJ HFHIJJE E< HIF II, M E EJ EM MJHHIF II IE JHH EH KJEJ, HF JJJE FHEIIIJ  LEH L. "L JJ HO-IJ EJE FHEIII FHELJ K EI E< EH EFN, H-EHH EJL FHEIII(H, D, & "EJ, 2008; H, "EJ, & D, 2007), LIJJE E< I IE JJJE II I FEHJJ <EH EH EFHIL KHIJ E< HJ HIF.KJE IE JJJE JEHO (HO, 2000; , FH, &+JJ, 2009) FHEFEII JJ EKH II IOIJI IK I IE P LLEL JE F LKI IKHLL  IE IJJI O JO<EKI E KI E< HL. #,  FHIFEI JJJE I JE-MH HJ HI' II  HEKF JHJEI IEK  HVJ IIEH JLJI IK I FEF'I O-P FJJHI. $JHJJ IE JJJE FHIFJL MJ J IIKFJEI E< I J-EHO, M JKI IIK JJ FEF'I LEL  “ II <EH I HIF ” IEK <IJ   KJEJ JO JE P EH E<J  <EH EH KHJE J LKI ME I EKJ E HIF KI( JKI H I HI) EFH JE E-HI.*KH HIH E<<HI ILH EJHKJEI JE J JHJKH. HIJ, M JE JEHP EKJ J EHI E< HIF I  J IE E-EHJE I, FHJ J LEKJE E< K  KI.$, IF <EHI E< HIF EKH   M LHJO E< IFIJJ I HIF JHEK ELH LEHI ( KJ, #E,& IH, 2008). EH NF, J IM FJJHI E< UI, J VOFJJHI E< HJ HI,  J ELJ FJJHI E< E-KFHJI HI H-<EEMH IJHKJKHI  HVJ J JME O -HJI E< HJ HIF: IEE I I J MIIJE EL J HEKF (.., I JEHO)  IEE I FO J-JJE JE JI II (.., <KJE IE JJJE JEHO). BIE JI FOEJ L, M HK JJ LKI FEIIII  <IJ,O KJEJ I <EH JJ HIF FEJJ  <-EM KI.E, M KI  JHKJ FFHE LEL JH <<HJHJHI JE JH HJ HI  J LIJJ   ï  L E-IHLHI' JK LEH (O JH LIK JJJE) M MJO HEKF IJKJEI   JKH FHEJ IJJ JE I J EJ IE JJJE I JEMH HJ HI. AI IK, M NJFHLEKI MEH JJ I H E (1) EIHLHI'  '4%'6+5  E< HJHIF <HE J II E< LEH (.., IO J ., 2017; IO,K, & K, 2014), (2)  5+'  ELH KI E< HJ HI (..,FOI J, K & C, 2004; JKF J ., 2013), (3)  56#6+%  IJ-KKI JH (.., FJKHI,  J ., 2013; K & AO, 2008) (4) EJHE  #$4#64;   IJJI (.., CHK, KHI, & H,1990;  J ., 2013).H, M FHEL J IJI JE J II JHEKM HJ HI O JJHJ J IE JJJE E<   ï  L E-IHLHI O NFEH HJ HI'  E-HI' ELH -LEHI <HE LE FI. E E IE, M FJ  IJI EI (BHJ & LH, 2000) JJ <<HJJI JM JL/FFHE  FIIL/HLEKI FEIJKH KI  < NFHIIEIJE LIJJ ELH LEH <<HI JM HJ -HI  E-HI. I I HIII IE E< J I -HJ  IKHLO-I HIH E HJ HIF IK I E<<JI JJ HVJ  ELH FEIJL JJJK JEMH  H IJ 1 EJ LHO K I  I; EO M  K I  IJ O LEKJE KIJ HII J IKHLL I E< IHI (.., HJ HI)  HLHI (..,EIHLHI), J GKUI I  I ("HE J ., 2017; #H, 2009). E< JK LEH (BKIJH, EI, & KH, 2007) EH EJOFHEI (AJEI, B, GKHJ, & L, 2010). The"e$ical backg"%nd  A66'6+ 6 '#&'45*+ %'5 AJEHI  J  “ HJ E< H H ”    FKHFEI<K I- IJHJI —“ JI E EI JJ H LI  JJ H  FHJI JE EKJ ”  (F, 2002, F. 434) — JE <EKI EJHI' E-JL HIEKHI E J EIJ <EHJL KI FHJ JE HIF(AJEI, BIJHEP, GKHJ, & H, 2016). "L JJ J IELHEJ  M LKI JHJ I HJHP O IK<U-J <EHJE, HJ HI O KI  H E< LH  E-LH II —  E<J  NJIL KI E< EJ (AJEI J .,2016;  J ., 2017) — JE J JH JO <EH IKII<KO EEH-J HEKFI  EFN LHEJI. J, MHI K HIHI LIJJ EM FEF HM <HI EKJ HIF <HE LH- JJI (.., +LJJ, JKH, F, & +JHI, 1997; IO J., 2017), EJ LEKJEHO I JEHO  J EJ I- FHIFJL E< HIF FHEL EFJK HIEI JE IIKJJ LKI IE  JIL KI E< ELH IE II JEHM <HI EKJ ME JE <EEM  HEKFI.HIJ, <HE  LEKJEHO I FHIFJL, IJE <LEHLKI ME FEIIII J JO JE KJEJO  KHJOHEP  JJ JE II E< HIF. B  JE HM -J <HI EKJ J H   HEKF MI F<K <EH IEL- KHJ EEHJE I IK I  HIEKH HII EH  JH-HEKF IFKJ (BE, 1999). EHELH, LKI MJ  EFH-IL JO JE LKJ J HJL UJII E< JILI  EJH HEKFHI <HE IE II IE   LJ  EHHJO JH- JH I JE EFJ <EH J  IJJKI HE E<  H (..,I J MEHJ JHO JE E J F EM EH MJ  M?). IJO, H IIJO <EH H KI EM HEKF HI JE -JO EJEH, H <HE,  EEHJ MJ LKI MEHJO E< <EEM (#H & "-J, 2001).E,  EJ FHIFJL E HIF IKIJI JJ -IJHJ EFJI IK I HIF FHEJEJOFI H IJEH EO  K- H IJHKJKHI ( J ., 2017). I I JJ J FHFJEE< E HIF II — IK I EO IJKHI  FEIJKHI,< NFHIIEI, FOI HJHIJI ( ü FHI, 2013) — O JHHEO HJEI E< J EIHLH ( J ., 2017; KHJ & EE,2009) IK I HJ I EH H II IOIJI JEMH J IEKH E< J II (.., J HJ H). I I EJ JE IO JJ H I-I EJ IE JLJ EH EFN EJL LKJE FJJHI;OJ, EKH HIE H <EKII E J JK  KJEJ E-JL HJEI JJ L LEL  J FIJ KI JO HI FE-F'I IKHLL I.  EKJE JI E< JI  “ HO K ”  H O JE  J JE IF II (+J, 2010), - JJ E II O JHH IEHJ-JH KJEJ HJEI EIHLHI. AI J JME-FHJ E E< J K H (, 2011)LLO IHI, JI KEIEKI FHEIII EFJ KI' J-JJL  HO EIEKI .$  MJ JI JME-IOIJ FHIFJL E< J K H(, 2011), LEKJEHO JEHO IKIJI JJ FJL L-EH II NIJ J EJ LI E< EJE (.., H <EHIE< HIE  EMH-L, KJEJ FHEIII E< JJJE). #EM-LH, HIH IE <H I EIJO <EKI E J EH EFN E-JL FHEIII HIKJ  HIF FHFJEI (H J ., 2008).EH IJ,  EHJEHO IJKO IEM JJ   ï  L EIHLHI  HM<HI EKJ HJ HIF EJ <HE LH  ELHKI M MJ 20-KJI LEJF IJKJ HEKF JHJEI 2      U    N   C   O    R    R    E   C    T    E    D    P    R   O   O    F  F.H. G'466 '6 #. T*' L'#&'45*+ Q#46'4;  (2017) -  (J, 1975). J, EIHLHI  JI HH MEH EK HO E HJHE J-<HI MJ H LEH JEHI <EH HL IIKF-JEI EKJ HIF JHEK EFHIL EJL <EHJEFHEII. $ EJHIJ, EKH HIH JHJI LEKJEHO IJEHO,  EJ FHIFJL,  IE JJJE JEHO JE FHE-L  NFJE MO EIHLHI IEK IE   JE HIF H-IF KI E  EH I, KJEJ JJJE L.  S%+# #66'6+ 6*'4;  #KI LEL I HEKF-L I (DHM, 1871), IK JJEIJ E< J J M MH IKHHEK O EJH FEF. $ JI LHE-J, J MI F<K <EH LKI JE FO JJJE JE EJHI' LEHI JE JHFHJ IE II FFHEFHJO. I II EM -LKI JE E  FJ H E<  HEKF  JE EJ  UJ-II LJ ELH <EMI ME MH II IEO JJJL ( J., 2009;  KJ J ., 2008). AI E EIGK E< JI  JE IEO JJJL, L  H HEKFI I L  IJE L-J JE J LEFJ E<  EHJ IOIJ E< LIK I J-JE (HO, 2000) JJ EM LKI JE HEP  EJH, JEEKJ JH J IJJI,  JE FHJ JH <EMI' LEH(HI, BOII, & FFH, 2007).*LH 30 HEI  J FHJ H H HJ JE J FHEII E< LIK <EHJE —  GKJ IEFIJJ FHEIIE IOIJ EFHJE EJH LHJHJI (HO, 2000). #KI  JH JE UL OELJI FH IE, E LH (#EGLIJ J ., 2011). I H-IKJI   H EKJ E< LIK <EHJE  HGKHI LIK FHE-II JE EKH   IJL H  EHH JE <KU JI <KJE-JO E< F KI J J I E< IE <   <<JLMO (H J ., 2008). KI, J II IOIJ IEK  I JEHO JJ JEI II JJ H HLJ JE IEL IFU FJLFHEI  HEKF IJJI IK I IJ  H JE <EEM. I LE-KJE-HEK <KJEJO E< J LIK JJJE IOIJ I OP FJJHI KGKO IKJ <EH FJKH JJJE JE HIF I-I.O-JH JEI  FJKH LKI' HVNL EHJJEJEMH  IJKKI (.., HVNL II) EH IFEJEKI O PFJJHI (.., I FJI) KH J EIHLJEI E< EFN IJK,IK I IE JHJEI  HEKF JI (IJ, "KHH-CHHE,O, & BK, 2017). $LKI EJ FHL LHOJ  JLIK U MJ GK JJJE; HJH JO  EO FHEII E -JH HE MJ  KJO (.., <EP EJHJE, <. HI &, 1985). I FI JJ M MJ  HEKF JHJE, -LKI  JE UNJ E IEE EH IEJ  JH <EKI E< J-JJE   HO JH. #,  EJHIJ JE EIHLHI' E-JLO EIJHKJ FHFJEI E< HIF, O P FJJHI FHE-LI  EJ-JE-EJ JEH E< FEF'I HF  KJEJ J-JJLII JE H KI."L JJ IE P I LEL I  <KJE IOIJ F -LKI JE IKHLL  IE IJJI O <EKI E KI E< HL,M IIK JJ FEF'I O-P FJJHI IEK HVJ  LELJJJE I JEMH HIF II. HI J KH E< UN-JEI FJKHI J EHJ EFEJ E< JJJE (.., EM E<J EI FHJFJ P J IEE EH IEJ?), J KHJE E< UNJEI(.., EM E EI  FHJFJ P J IEE EH IEJ?) H-VJI J EIHLH'I JJJE J (K, #O ö  ä , &CLE, 2006). $ EJH MEHI, MHI J KH E< UNJEI FEJIJE J FHJ E<  IJKKI JE JJHJ JJJE, J KHJE -JI EM <EHJL EH JHIJ J UNJ IJKKI I. E KI-JHJ,  LEL I O JJHJ  EIHLH'I J O P J-JJE (.., J EIHLH I UNJ J IJKKI), KJ J IJKKIO JO JKH EKJ JE  HHLJ IK JJ J EIHLH'I J-JJE I<JI IJHJMO (.., EM KHJE E< UNJE). $ EJHIJ,M J IJKKI JHHI   JJJE J KI JEJI LK <EHJE, J EIHLH O UNJ J <EH  E K-HJE.  H;6*'5'5 #& 4'5'#4%* 3'56+5 E IKHP EKH  E< HIE, M FHEFEI JJ IE LK-I H I HI  JO HII HEKFI,  JJ JI -LKI JJHJ EH JJJE E<   ï  L EIHLHI J E-HI. NFJ JI JJJE <<J JE  HVJ  EJ J EHJ E-FEJ (.., UNJEI)  J JJJE J (.., KHJE) E<   ï  L EIHLHI' O P FJJHI M MJ J II E< L-EH <HE J JHJEI. JJ <EHO, M OFEJIP:#OFEJII 1  N# ï  ' $5'4'45 9+ =#6'  '/'4'6 '#&'45 /4' 6' 6*# -'#&'45. #OFEJII 2  N# ï  ' $5'4'45 9+ #<' #6 '/'4'6 '#&'45 4 '4 6*# #6 -'#&-'45. AI FEJ EKJ HH, HIH I F K JJJE JE HJHI' LK HJHIJI (, 2017). * E< J EIJIJ HJHIJI JJ FO  HE  LEKJE I LKI' IN;OJ, L IE <H I EKIL M J EI JE H <<HI HJ HIF IHFJEI (.., O & CH, 2003). * JE , IE HIH IJJI JJ <I H II O JE JJHJ JJJJE E< EJHI  JKI II O JE H I HI (.., AHI,1996; BKJH & "I, 1990). * J EJH , IE IEHO MEHJI O IN <<JI (.., H & BHJE, 1980)  IE IJK-I L HK <EH  < LJ  HIF JJJE, <EH N-F  KJKHI MJ EM EH IJHJ  <M IE IJEI (E &EH, 2012) EH  IJKJEI E< EM JE EHJ EVJ (EI& A #, 2015).+HEL L <EH  JJJE LJ E<  HJHI, LEKJEHO FIOEEIJI L HFJO FIP JJ H EH O J ME JE  IH HIF FEJJ -KI JO FEIIII  FOI LJ (IJHJ  FEMH), MI HI J HEKF'I IKHLL I  J IJH FIJ ("EJF& H, 1989;  KJ J ., 2008; JMEHJ & AHIE, 1984).IK < EH EO <JKHI H II <EH H JIJEIJHELI, M  JKH HI J EE JE J   EJ HIIL H (CHH é , CEH, & EE, 2009; "HE J .,2017). I JJHKJI O L  U <EH HEKFI  IJK-JEI E< JH- EH JHHEKF EVJ. EH IJ,  EH FEMH<K HIIL H  FHEJJ J HEKF M J I KH JJ (FIJ ., 2012). $  MJ JI EJE, HIH <EK JJ  P K E< EJ  < VK EIHLHI' FH<EH   O-JH- JI EH EFHILO HEII EJNJI J  E-EJ <- < (*I, L EIJ, &  KJ, 2013). E IKHP, JLEKJEHO FHIFJL IKIJI JJ  HJ HI O L LEL JJJE LJ ELH < HJ HI.* J EJH , HIH  J JHJE E<  EFJ I- FHIFJL I HK JJ FHFJEI E< EFJ EIJ-JKJ J JH I JJ JHI J EKJ E< HIF I-H JE J HI (JMEHJ & AHIE, 1984). $, IJK-I J JJ J FEIJL HJEIF JM FOI KI HIF IHFJE I J O FHFJEI E< EFJ  -J (BM & EEHEL, 2007; BH J ., 2013; EEHEL J .,2005).  EIHL O J IJKJEI, LKI EIH LHJO E< LH  ELH II JE HL IIKFJEI E< JHI' EFJ,  FOI KI  EI HL  EFH-IE JE EH IJ LH  ELH II E< EFJ. EHIJ, ME H IH H HIF FEJJ  F<K 3      U    N   C   O    R    R    E   C    T    E    D    P    R   O   O    F  F.H. G'466 '6 #. T*' L'#&'45*+ Q#46'4;  (2017) -  IJKJEI EFH JE IJJI E< JHHEKF EVJ KI FOIKI EJ   LJ JE HEKF IKHLL  E-JHJ IJKJEI(DE, LHHJ, &  KJ, 2012;  KJ & "HE, 2015).*LH, JI HIH IJH IKIJI JJ < HJ HI OEJ IK<<H <HE  JJJE ILJ KJ JJHJ J IJ J IEKJ E< JJJE (< EJ L EH) J  HJ HI E-JHJ IJKJEI (IK I J HEKF IKIIE IJJ N JI IJKO). JE EKJ JJ EJ FHIFJLI FHEL EF HK-JI, M H<H <HE OFEJIP  IJ FEI J <EEM H-IH GKIJEI:  R'5'#4%* Q'56+ 1: D # ï  ' $5'4'45 =#6' /#' '/'4'6 '#&'45#& '/#' '/'4'6 '#&'45 '3#; 6'? R'5'#4%* Q'56+ 2: D # ï  ' $5'4'45 #<' #6 /#' '/'4'6 '#&'45#& '/#' '/'4'6 '#&'45 '3#; ? Me$hd#  S6+/+  IJK <EH JI NFHJ MH EJ <HE  FHEH IJKO M M LEJF JI E< 42 PHE-IJEHO JI MEH E EIKJ FHEJ <EH  H KJEEJL EFO.  JI EE-HJ <EH IL MI   JE LH  U FHIJJE  <HEJ E< J EFO'I JEF J J J  E< J EIKJ FHEJ. KI  JHKJ I JE EJ HJ HIF HJIJ J O E< J U FHIJJE.  J JILI  JME JJEHI (ME JHJ MJ J JI KH J FHEJ KJ MH EJFHIJ KH J LEJF J JI) MH I JE  EE< J J'I HI ME JO JEKJ H I  <EH HKH J FHEJ. KI,  J H HL JH  0 (EH) EH 1 (HJ H) HJ <HE J JH IEKHI, M MHJ JE  ELH HJ HIF HJ. EH J FKHFEI E< JI IJKO, M IJ IL JI EIIJ E< JH FHIEI MJ EH HJ H (.., E FHIE ME   JU I JHJ H O J JH HJ IEKHI). HI E< J IJJI MH EH  12 <<HJ EKJHI, MJ "H (33.3%), C-I (9.5%), "EH (9.5%),  $ (9.5%)  J EIJ FHL-J JEJI. 2  LEJF J JI IEM J JI JHJ MIJJ J  GKHJ J.  H MI FEIJE J E I E< J HEE (I . 1).  HEO IJ JME IEHJ LE <HJI(15,000 I) <HE  EH LE (.., 2 <HJI  ×  3 LEI  ×  7JI = 42 LE IJK  JEJ).  <HJI  L JE J FH-JKH HGKHJI  <  HEO IJ LE IGK  EJ<KU JI HJH, M HFJ J FHEKH KJ M H JFHU KH E< LE FI.  HGKHJI MH JJ (1) HEKFHI  JE H IJ <EH J JH <HJ, (2) HIEK EJ E  EJH <HE LM, (3) E EJH FHIEI EH ELEJI EK  FHIJ  J I,  (4)  HEKF HI JE    J ELHIJE, .., E EEEKI KI HIHI IEM JJ JJJE I EH O JE  HM JE J FHIE IF-, L < J EIHLH EJ H MJ J IFH I IO (DK& I, 1977; #E, EKI, & IJE, 2015). KHJHEH, KIEIHLHI L  JO JE FO EH JJJE JE J JH (I,CH, CHE, KEP, & $JJ, 2009), E-HI MH IJ  J FEIJE  62% E< J JI. 3 2 JEJO  EJ FHJ H H HJI,  F  (1,19) = 0.158,    = 0.696. 3 *KH UI HH   ï  L EIHLHI ‘ LIK JJJE JE J HI  J LEIH IUJ M EJHE <EH IJ FEIJE (I AFFN A <EH JI). Fig. 1.  EJF IJKF  <JE E< EI E< $JHIJ (*$) <EH J O-JHNFHJ.  LE FI EJ MJ I IEM  J  EN; J EJJ IJ J *$I KI <EH JH FEF'I O-JH FJJHI.  E;'-64#%+ ''4+/'6  O-JH I  HJH U-H EIHLJE JE. E KI-JHJ,  1000 #P O-JHH HEHI FHJFJ'I P HJE 1000JI FH IE. I I JJ  <M FHJFJI   O-JH- NFHJ HO HJ JEKII E< J FEJ  –   JJ I EJLJ IEHI JE LEF  J OJ JEI JE<<JLO OP O-JH J (.., BI, BKH, I, &IEF<, 2015). $ EKH IJKO, M HO E FHLEKI IJHI  KI IF IP  F J JJ I EE  EJL FIOEEO(.., DKEMI, 2017; , BEHEM, K, LE *JJE, & HIJ,2017).J F DKJ LEKJHI (10 <; 8 ) MJ   E< 26.51 OHI (  SD  = 9.60 OHI) MJ J 42 IJ LEFI (15,000 I).  NFHJ MI EKJ   IEK-IEJ O J HEE. +HJFJI JEE E LH 20  JE UI JJII. A FHJFJI  EH EH EHHJ-JE-EH LIE. NFHJ MI EKJ  EH MJ J KI E< J#I DHJE. A<JH FHEL <EH EIJ, FHJFJI H-L MHJJ IJHKJEI JJ I J JE FO EI JJJE JE JIE JHJEI E< J FEF  J LEI.H<JH J O JHH MI HJ. +HJFJI FEIJEJH  E  HIJ J  IJ E< 75  <HE  21- IKOIJH IFO (100 #P) MJ  HIEKJE E< 1680  ×  1050 FN. EFKJH   $J CEH 2 DKE (3 "#P) FHEIIEH   $DA"EH 210 LE H.  JI MI FHEH KI J NFH-J-KH IE<JMH *FI (J ô J, H, & KMI,2012). EEKH ELJI MH HEH MJ  O 1000(DIJEF EKJ E, <H-H LE-I,  IH J.,C), MJ  HIEKJE E< 1000 #P (JFEH)  0.01 °   (IF 4      U    N   C   O    R    R    E   C    T    E    D    P    R   O   O    F  F.H. G'466 '6 #. T*' L'#&'45*+ Q#46'4;  (2017) -  J).  O JHH EJ  O KJEH JJ IIUI OELJI IKHFII  35 ° /I LEJO EH  9500 ° /I 2 HJE II ELJI.HEKEKJ J NFHJ,  JH IJHJ MJ  H<J EHH-JE FHEKH,  JJ FHJFJI  JE FHII  IF-H MJO MH UNJ E  JH HEII E J IH.  LE F -JO <EEM.  42 LEI MH FO  HE EHH J IEK MI KJ.  HIEKJE E< J LEI MI 720  ×  576 FN EH640  ×  480 FN. AJ HE EJI KH J NFHJ, FHJFJIMH I JE IMH  IF GKIJE EKJ J F JO KIJ IM EHH JE IKH JH IKIJ JJJE (..,  “ $I JH  IJ E< FFHE J J? ” ). +HJFJI IMH JI OI/E GKIJEI (8 GKI-JEI  JEJ,  EH  KGK J) O JOF J HIFEI I (<EH OI) EH  (<EH E) E   OEH.  E4#64; ##;5+5: N-'4$# $'*#+4 %&+  E LIJJ EM E-LH KI O  JE  FEJJ JJJEI JEMH HJ HI, M IE E J HI' E-LH- LEHI  J 42 LE FI. "L J J IF IP JJ L E< LK J HI JJ HIKJ <HE EKH <EKI EJ II E< LEH (.., IEHJ LE FI <EH J O-JH NFH-J), JI FHJ E< EKH HIH MI NFEHJEHO.$FEHJJ JI E< ELH EKJE H (1) FEIJKHKI IK I IJKHI  EO ELJI  (2) < NFHIIEI(OI & EH, 2004).  FJ  E I <HE BHJ LH (2000) JE IKH JI JME IEI MJ HHI JE -JL/FFHE  FIIL/HLEKI NFHIIEI. +EIJKH LEHMI E I (1) JL FEIJKH JEHI (JL  ELJI, N-FIL IJKHI, FEI <EH JE, EIJJ EO ELJ), (2) E-O EHJJE JEMH EJHI (EHJ JEMH HEKF HI, <EHMH,  HJ JEMH HEKF HI),  (3) FIIL FEI-JKH JEHI (JJ ELJ  I EH JEHIE, NFHIIEI E< EH-E IK I HIJ  E I,  JJ EMMHI, HKOI).  NFHIIEI MH E I (1) JL/<HO NFHIIEI(I MJ JJ IEM, EI F I, EKJ JKH KFMHI), (2)FIIL < JEHI ( IJH, OM, JJ < ELJ,UN IJH MO, <HEM),  (3) NFHIIEI E< HLEKIII (HLEKII, LIL O EJJ). JH  HIH IIIJJ E EKH E I  EK--E UL LEI MJ  NFHJ EH JE IKH JJ IJI<JEHOHJ (> 90% ELHF) MI H. E H  HJ EO IIJ EI, M MJ  JE J E <JEI    EJ IE EKJ M E JE KI.  HIH IIIJJ E J42 LE FI IFHJO <EH  J H,  JJ <EH LE F JH E UI MH HJ KI E $JHJ E<J-MH (E, 2010).  HIH IIIJJ MJ J LE  KJJ LE  J J <E J H IEM  <<HJ ELH- LEH JJ MI J E EH JE EKH E I. J H  UI JE EJ J IHFJL IJJI <EH J ELHLEH E< J HJ HI  J E-HI. Re#%l$#  E;' #<+   KI (1) J EKJ E< UNJEI I  FHENO <EH J EIHLHI' EH-J EFEJ E< JJJE  (2) J J E<  UNJE I IKH <EH J EIHLHI' JJJE J M MJ JLKI  J FI. E FJKH J KH  KHJE E< UNJEI<EH  J H, J LE FI EJ 3 HEI E< JHIJ(*$I) FJKH J JH LKI (I . 1).  IKH< E< JIJHIJ HI MI E< GK IP (100,000 FN). UHIJ OP EIHLI' H O ELJI, IEM JJFHJFJI  E LH  M   = 32.78 UNJEI (  SD  = 4.26) KH 15 I F   UNJE E LH IJ <EH  M   = 419.54 I(  SD  = 65.76 I).  J JKH JE J UNJEI E< J JHJI (..,HJ HI  E-HI)  EJH EJLI O KI J*$I. * LH, FHJFJI   M   = 25.55 UNJEI E J JH-JI  J *$I (  SD  = 3.45)   M   = 7.22 UNJEI JE EJI EKJIJ *$I (  SD  = 2.49). I I JJ KH  LE F, FHJ-FJI P E LH J JHJI  J *$I <EH  M   = 11,071.09 I(  SD  = 872.14 I)  IF  M   = 2431.40 I (  SD  = 738.96 I) EEJLI EKJI J *$I.  EO <EKI E J UNJEI  J *$I EFH J FHJFJI' LH UNJE  P KHJE E< J H *$I MJ JEI E< J E-H *$I (J UI I JJF://N.E.EH/10.17632/7M<NN.1).HIJ, M EFI J J J J FHJFJ L JE KJ 6  -JIJI <EH FH IFI. +HJKHO, M EFH FHJFJI' UNJEI E< HJ HI EFH JE JH LH UNJEI E< E-HI I M I JH LH O P KHJE J HI LH-IKI E-HI. +HEL IKFFEHJ <EH #OFEJII 1, J HIKJI IEMJJ   ï  L EIHLHI P J HJ HI (  M   = 9.29,  SD  = 1.24)EH E<J J J E-HI (  M   = 8.22,  SD  = 1.24),  6  (17) = 4.416,    = 0.000,  &  = 0.871. E,   MJ #OFEJII 2,   ï  L E-IHLHI IE P J HJ HI EH KH  UNJE(  M   = 4106.19 I,  SD  = 408.67 I) J J E-HI(  M   = 3637.96 I,  SD  = 321.80 I),  6  (17) = 4.035,    = 0.001, &  = 1.273.  4  1 IKHPI J HIKJI E< J FH  6  -JIJI.E IMH IH KIJEI 1  2, M EFH EIHLHI' OUNJEI  KHJE FJJHI <EH < HJ HI (12 LEIFI) MJ JEI <EH  HJ HI (30 LE FI).  -IHFJL IJJIJI J JJ EIHLHI UNJ E  HJHI EH E<J (  M   = 9.47,  SD  = 1.29) J E < HJHI (  M   = 8.84,  SD  = 1.41)  P J  HJ HI<EH EH (  M   = 4130.96,  SD  = 419.51) J J < HJ -HI (  M   = 4044.28 I,  SD  = 674.81 I). J, FH  6  -JIJI HLJJ EO J <<H  J EIHLHI' KH E< UNJEI E<  < HJ HI MI IJJIJO I<J,  6  (17) = 2.492,    = 0.023,  &  = 0.466, MHI P KHJE  EJ <<H I<-JO JM   < HJ HI,  6  (17) = 0.557,    = 0.584,  &  = 0.154.  N-'4$# $'*#+4  *KH E FHEKH HIKJ  373 E-LH LEH -JEHI NJHJ <HE J 42 LE FI. $ J <EEM, M HFEHJJ IEKJ KH E< HJ HI' E-LH LEHI E-FH JE J LH KH E< E-HI' E-LH LEHI (..,IEKJ KH L O JME, KI JH MH JM I OE-HI I HJ HI). I NFEHJEHO HIKJI IEMEH JL FEIJKH JEHI <EH HJ HI (  M   = 39 -JI) J <EH E-HI (  M   = 20.5 JI,  SD  = 3.54) HEII LE FI. KHJHEH, HJ HI EHJ EH E<J JEMHEJH J HI (46 JI) J E-HI (  M   = 32.50 -JI,  SD  = 0.71). J HHI JE FIIL FEIJKH JEHI, H-J HI (  M   = 39 JI)  E-HI (  M   = 40.50 JI,  SD  = 6.36) IEM IH LEH FJJHI.KH JE J < NFHIIEI, J KH E< JL/<HO <- NFHIIEI JM HJ HI (11 JI)  E--HI (  M   = 9.50 JI,  SD  = 2.12) LH EO IJO. J, MHI 4  IE H  N-WJI E (K, IJ<, & O, 2012) JJ JHJ JI,J FEJI,  J KH E< LEI <HE  J FEJ I HE JHFJI. EKJEI E< J FH  6  -JIJI  J N-WJI EI H FHIO J I (IAFFN A <EH J J HIKJI).5
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