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Increase in Weather Temperature

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How would increase in weather temperature affect our agriculture?
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  Increase in Weather Temperature: A threat to Agricultural Crops  Anthon Joseph A. Bahil BSCS-I, Brittney Queen Tanjay DCT-I, Erica Mae Gabor BSA-I, Noeme Babia BSAF-I College of Engineering and Information Technology/ College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Caraga State University  Ampayon, Butuan City Food is one of the primary needs of a human and one of the primary sources of our foods are plants, without plants, there will be no foods and without foods, it will be impossible for us to love here in earth. Global warming or increase in global temperature which means too cold or too hot affects our source of foods which are our agricultural crops. This study was made to encourage people to be aware in our environment, we choose this rese arch because if we don’t take an action to our environment  this problem might get worse and it will be difficult to solve this problem was not taken an action. This study will focus only to climate change and agricultural crops problems. Why is the increase of weather temperature a threat to our agricultural crops? What are the effects of increasing temperature as a threat? What are the ways to decrease weather temperature? Global warming and climate change are terms often interchangeably, but this does not accurately describe the two different processes. Global warming specially refers to an increase in global temperatures, which can lead to climate change. Climate Change is caused by an increase in the amount of green house gases spewed into the atmosphere through human activities. Green house gases refer to the Carbon dioxide and other industrial gases. Climate change changes the probability that the weather events are affected due to the effect of a certain amount of intensity, humidity, radiation, frequency and types of precipitation that will affect the growth development of agricultural crops. Global warming also takes place on a global scale, which means indications of global warming can be seen throughout the world. On the other hand, climate change may refer to a wider range of fluctuations, which can take place locally or globally. Because climate change may look different, depending on the location, it can impact specific regions in various ways. Over the past century, the average temperature of the earth has increased by 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit. It is predicted that the temperature will rise another two to 11 degrees over the next 100 years. While this increase may not seem large on the surface, it can have a profound impact on the earth overall, from melting ice caps to rising sea levels. If climate change continues at the rate it appears to be tracking currently, serious consequences could begin to occur across the globe. Early effects, which have already been recorded, include rising sea levels and increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, due to increases in global temperatures. Other potential effects might include extreme weather conditions, ranging from severe droughts to significant flooding. Natural ecosystems, such as coral reefs, forests, wetlands and grasslands could be threatened. This in turn threatens all of the animals and creatures that depend on those ecosystems for survival. The hardest hit would be poor, developing countries that already are in a struggle for survival. Climate change could directly impact their ability to grow food and find clean, safe water. Disease could begin to run rampant, and starvation would increase on a global scale. Because of the extreme risks to poor countries, many organizations are committed to monitoring climate change and finding solutions that can help these countries survive before it is too late (Environmental Protection   Agency (EPA). Federal Agency committed to the protection of the environment and human health. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). U.S. government agency offering a specific website with facts and news about climate change. The World Bank. Source of support to developing countries worldwide and specifically concerned with how climate change could affect these countries. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Federal agency featuring a Climate Change Office to monitor climate change and possible strategies for dealing with it. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Global agency committed to ensuring food security worldwide. Greenpeace. Nonprofit organization created to campaign for environmental protection across the globe). The Philippines has always been prone to climate-related calamities such as flash floods, typhoons, storms, El Niño, La Niña, and mud/landslides. In fact, the country experiences an average of nineteen typhoons every year. These calamities often result to loss of properties and lives because most communities in the Philippines are ill-prepared for such catastrophes. Although impossible to prevent it, actions can be taken to mitigate and if possible, prevent the adverse effects of this natural phenomenon. The general objective of this study was to document cases of small rice. Farmers’ adaptation to the changing c limate, especially significant variation in the intensity and length of the rainy season and average rainfall in the Philippines. The study inquired about small rice farmers, the perceptions of signs of climate change in their area, indicators of the effects of climate change in their rice production, ways they would like to adapt to these effects and ways they have adapted to these effects.  According to (Philippine Real-time Environmental Data Acquisition and Interpretation for Climate-related Tragedy Prevention and Mitigation (PREDICT)) as of the year 2005, PAGASA has 60 surface synoptic stations and 21 agricultural meteorological (agro-met) stations installed across the country. Synoptic stations are used to obtain a comprehensive and nearly instantaneous picture of the state of the atmosphere by acquiring meteorological data simultaneously over a wide area. On the other hand, agro-met stations are used to store different soil and atmospheric observations that are related to agriculture. Although such monitoring technologies already exist, these stations are manually manned. Transmission of data from stations to central server/office is also done manually. With the PREDICT project, existing systems of PAGASA can be enhanced through automating the transmission of data from remote stations of the server in real-time.  According to (JOHN J. CARROLL INSTITUTE ON CHURCH AND SOCIAL ISSUES 2006): Rice is a staple food for 90% of Filipinos. As they say in the Philippines, “a meal is not a meal without rice.” It is no t surprising then that a huge number of Filipino farmers plant rice.  Around 11.5 million farmers and family members depend on the rice industry as their means of livelihood. Thirty- three percent of the country’s agricultural lands are devoted to rice. Rice  farming, however, is being threatened by climate change, which is primarily manifested in the changing intensity and length of the rainy season and average rainfall in the Philippines. Milankovitch’s Theory states that as the Earth travels through space a round the sun, cyclical variations in three elements of Earth/sun/geometry combine to produce variations in the amount of solar energy that reaches us. Variations in the Earth's orbital eccentricity the shape of the orbit around the sun, a 100,000 year cyc le. Changes in obliquity or tilt of the earth’s axis changes in the angle that Earth's axis makes with the plane of Earth's orbit, a 41,000 year cycle. Precession the change in the direction of the Earth's axis of rotation, a 19,000 to 23,000 year cycle. These orbital processes are thought to be the most significant drivers of ice ages  and, when combined, are known as Milankovitch Cycles. Other Climate Change Drivers Changes occurring within the sun affect the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface. These changes in intensity can cause either warming - stronger solar intensity - or cooling when solar intensity is weaker. Volcanoes often affect our climate by emitting aerosols and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Aerosols block sunlight and contribute to short term cooling, but does not stay in the atmosphere long enough to produce long term change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) has a warming effect. For about two-thirds of the last 400 million years, geologic evidence suggests CO2 levels and temperatures were considerably higher than present. Each year 186 billion tons of carbon from CO2 enters the earth's atmosphere - six billion tons are from human activity, approximately 90 billion tons come from biologic activity in earth's oceans and another 90 billion tons from such sources as volcanoes and decaying land plants. These climate change “drivers” often trigger additional changes or “feedbacks” within the climate system that can amplify or dampen the climate's initial response to them: The heating or cooling of the Earth's surface can cause changes in greenhouse gas concentrations when global temperatures become warmer, CO2 is released from the oceans and when temperatures become cooler, CO2 enters the ocean and contributes to additional cooling. During at least the last 650,000 years, CO2 levels have tracked the glacial cycles - during warm interglacial periods, CO2 levels have been high and during cool glacial periods, CO2 levels have been low. The heating or cooling of the Earth's surface can cause changes in ocean currents. Ocean currents play a significant role in distributing heat around the Earth so changes in these currents can bring about significant changes in climate from region to region. Climate-related threats to global/local food production include risks to grain, vegetable, and fruit crops, livestock, and fisheries. It can reduce yields because the productivity of crops and livestock, including milk yields, may decline because of high temperatures and drought-related stress. Increased irrigation in the regions of the world that now depend on rain-fed agriculture may require irrigation, bringing higher costs and conflict over access to water also the farmers planting and harvesting changes shifting seasonal rainfall patterns and more severe precipitation events and related flooding may delay planting and harvesting. Decreased arability of prime growing temperatures may shift to higher latitudes, where soil and nutrients may not be as suitable for producing crops, leaving lower-latitude areas less productive. More pests or insect and plant pests may survive or even reproduce more often each year if cold winters no longer keep them in check and new pests may also invade each region as temperature and humidity conditions change. Lower-latitude pests may move to higher latitudes, for example and also climate changing risks to fisheries, shifts in the abundance and types of fish and other seafood may hurt commercial fisheries, while warmer waters may pose threats to human consumption, such as increasing the risk of infectious diseases. Extreme ocean temperatures and ocean acidification place coral reefs the foundations of many of the world's fisheries at risk. Changes in the weather, specifically the rainfall pattern which is very crucial to rice farming, are foreseen to continue. And manifestations are different for various parts of the country. In as much as rice farming (and agriculture as a whole) is very much affected by the weather conditions, it is important that the farmers deepen their awareness and understanding of this phenomenon on climate change so that they can better manage its effects in the farm, home and in the community as a whole. It would be helpful if more technical inputs or tools were provided to them to guide them in their farming activities more systematically because when this type of climate continuous there will be a scarcity of our food production and lead us to starvation.   Increase in weather temperature is a major threat to human, animals and plants especially to our agricultural crops which is our primary source of foods and other useful products like cloths, papers, etc. A plant requires a certain amount of temperature and if it changes, the ability for a plant to grow will be affected. Extreme heat and too much rain destroy plants. And if plants are destroyed, there will be no food for us and animals as well. There will be a great effect to plants, animals, and humans as well. Increase in weather temperature will destroy plants and maybe some of them will fade. If they are destroyed there will be a scarcity of foods and other products that came from agricultural crops. If there is an scarcity, it will be a great impact to the population since population keeps on increasing as year goes by. We can decrease weather temperature even in our small ways. Even throwing garbage in a right garbage bin will help our mother earth. We should plant more trees, never burn cellophanes and plastics. Unplug appliances and lights when not in use. Close water faucet when not in use. Take a walk if the school is near from your house. Avoid throwing wastes to our river and seas. Try to use eco-friendly products and not those harmful to our environment. And always remember the 3R’s, Reduce, Reuse and  Recycle your wastes. If only our government uses renewable energy like solar energy and not use fossil fuels, nuclear power plants and coal power plants. There would be no great pollution that can damage our earth and increase our weather temperature and damage our agricultural crops. If we all do these things together we can possibly back earth to the state in which it is comfortable to live, fresh and breathable air and plenty of foods in our surroundings. We found out that this problem is really getting worse. Farmers are also adapting to the change in climate. If there is an extreme heat, the soil will become very dry and crack and the plant requires a right amount of moisture in soil, the plant cannot survive in that kind of soil. If there is a heavy rain, their agricultural field flooded and plants were destroyed. Like what happened last January due to tropical depression “Agaton”, Caraga region is one of the places that was greatly affected by this tropical depression, agricultural crops were destroyed because of the flood, and some lives of the people lost due to this tropical depression. Climate change and increase in weather temperature is really getting worse and it is really a great threat not only to humans and animals but also plants. We should take an action to this problem and don’t wait for time that it’s too late and from a very livable planet for humans and plants, this will become a hostile planet for humans, plants and animals that is very impossible for us to live. We are talking abo ut our future and life here. Let’s save mother earth. Bibliography: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/agriculture.html
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