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Infiltration and Runoff

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  Infiltration  Infiltration may be defined as the process by which water entersthe surface strata of the earth  The infiltrated water first meets the soil moisture deficiency, if any,and thereafter the excess water moves vertically downwards toreach the groundwater table  The vertical movement is called percolation  Infiltration Capacity   Infiltration capacity of a soil under given conditions is defined asthe maximum rate at which it is capable of absorbing water and isdenoted by  f    The actual infiltration (  f  a ) observed in a given soil will be equal toor less than its infiltration capacity,  f   depending on whether ornot the rate of source supply is more or less than the infiltrationcapacity   If  i   denotes the rainfall intensity,  f  a = fif i>= f  f  a = Iif i< f    The information regarding the infiltration rates is required in theestimation of surface runoff and groundwater recharge  Factors Affecting Infiltration Capacity   Depth of surface detention and thickness of saturated layer   Soil moisture   Natural and human induced compaction   Surface cover conditions   Temperature (through viscosity)   Quality of water  Instruments for Measuring Infiltration  Infiltrometers (single or double ring)  Rainfall simulators

Physics Oct 2017

Apr 16, 2018

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Apr 16, 2018
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