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  INSTITUTE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, PU System Approach To Management Hassan Sajid 12-BS-R-68 Submitted to Ms. Iman Saleem Bukhari  Introduction The systems concept can be a useful way of thinking about the job of managing. It provides a framework for visualizing internal and external environmental Factors as an integrated whole. It allows recognition of the proper place and Function of subsystems. The systems within which businessmen must operate Are necessarily complex. However, management via systems concepts fosters a Way of thinking which, on the one hand, helps to dissolve some of the complexity And, on the other hand, helps the manager recognize the nature of the complex Problems and thereby operate within the perceived environment. It is important To recognize the integrated nature of specific systems, including the fact that Each system has both inputs and outputs and can be viewed as a self-contained Unit. But it is also important to recognize that business systems are a part of Larger systems  —   possibly industry-wide, or including several, maybe many, Companies and/or industries, or even society as a whole. Further, business Systems are in a constant state of change  —  they are created, operated, revised, And often eliminated. What does the concept of systems offer to students of management and/or To practicing executives? Is it a panacea for business problems which will replace Scientific management, human relations, management by objective, operations Research, and many other approaches to, or techniques of, management? Perhaps A word of caution is applicable initially. Anyone looking for cookbook techniques Will be disappointed. In this report we do not evolve ten easy steps To success in management. Such approaches, while seemingly applicable and easy To grasp, usually are shortsighted and superficial. Fundamental ideas, such as the Systems concept, are more difficult to comprehend, and yet they present a greater Opportunity for a large-scale payoff. Systems Defined The term systems is derived from the Greek word synistanai, which means to bring together or combine. A system is an organized or complex whole; an assemblage or combination Of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole. The term system covers An extremely broad spectrum of concepts. For example, we have mountain systems, River systems and the solar system as part of our physical surroundings. The body itself is a complex organism including the skeletal system, the circulatory System and the nervous system. We come into daily contact with such Phenomena as transportation systems, communication systems (telephone, telegraph, etc.), and economic systems. The antonym of systematic is chaotic. A chaotic situation might be described As one where everything depends on everything else. Since two major goals Of science and research in any subject area are explanation and prediction, such A condition caimot be tolerated. Therefore there is considerable incentive to Develop bodies of knowledge that can be organized into a complex whole, within Which subparts or subsystems can be interrelated.  Managers often have been focusing attention on particular Functions in specialized areas, they may lose sight of the over-all objectives Of the business and the role of their particular business in even larger systems. These individuals can do a better job of carrying out their own responsibilities If they are aware of the big picture. It is the familiar problem of not being able To see the forest for the trees. The focus of systems management is on providing a Better picture of the network of subsystems and interrelated parts which go Together to form a complex whole.   Systems Theory Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (: General Systems Theory, 1968), and furthered by Ross Ashby (Introduction to Cybernetics, 1956). The biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy has emphasized the part of general Systems theory which he calls open systems. The basis of his concept is that a living organism is not a conglomeration of separate elements  but a definite system. Possessing organization and wholeness. An organism is an open system which Maintains a constant state while matter and energy which enter it keep changing (So-called dynamic equilibrium). The organism is influenced by, and influences, Its environment and reaches a state of dynamic equilibrium in this environment! Such a description of a system adequately fits the typical business organization. The business organization is a man-made system which has a dynamic interplay With its environment  —  customers, competitors, labor organizations, suppliers, Government and many other agencies. Furthermore, the business organization Is a system of interrelated parts working in conjunction with each other in order To accomplish a number of goals, both those of the organization and those of Individual participants. A common analogy is the comparison of the organization to the human body, With the skeletal and muscle systems representing the operating line elements And the circulatory system as a necessary staff functions. The nervous system Is the communication system. The brain symbolizes top-level management, or The executive committee. In this sense an organization is represented as a self-maintaining Structure, one which can reproduce. Such an analysis hints at the Type of framework which would be useful as a systems theory for business  —  one Which is developed as a system of systems and that can focus attention at the Proper pohits in the organization for rational decision making, both from the Standpoint of the individual and the organization.

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Jul 23, 2017
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