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   Electrical Instruments © IEMS ‐ High School Tutorial Class Notes Current Electricity   Page 1 Galvanometer :   Galvanometer   is   an   instrument   used   for   the   detection   and   measurement   of    charge   current   and   potential   difference.   Depending   upon   its   uses   galvanometers   can   be   divided   into   two:   (1)   Ballistic   galvanometer:   This   is   mainly   used   for   the   detection   and   measurement   of    charge.   (2)   Dead   beat   or   a   periodic   galvanometer:   This   is   mainly   used   for   the   detection   and   measurement   of    current   and   potential   difference.   Depending   on   the   nature   of    construction   galvanometers   can   be   classified   into   two:   Pivoted   type   (1)   Moving   coil   galvanometer   Suspended   coil   Pivoted   type   (2)   Moving   magnet   galvanometer   Suspended   coil      ©SelfSt    Moving   Principl and   a   throughgiven   mmeasuri   ( ) F tknowWeind theBcurr thelthe ×====  Bl iil & b Theory upwand direThe whereoForce = φ  ib F coil   Galvane   :(   Based   oagnetic   fiel   the   coil.   Tagnetic   fieldng   the   angl   )1( forceat thevectoction tflowingnt eaof ength n Given : = ( ) directioard  theof ction  betangle90sin'each wire =− φ   IEMS meter :   the   princip)   A   coil   is   se   current   t   in   which   th   of    rotation     experiencemagtheof r hehrough t calh vertinumber therespectivn on thforcenoeeen thsinfc''and de' =  φ  ibB Electri ‐ High Schoo le   of    the   foruspended   inrough   the   e   coil   is   suspcurrent   can     A   cirinsultorsiconccoil   iits   osusptermicurrewith   of    rarranattac curr  by thei field netic oil. horizontalin tturnsof hencand ly de'' wires  thetormal al Instr  Tutorial Cla e   of    intera   a   magnetic   coil   producended.   Due     be   calculateular   or   rectted   coppen   head   T,   ve   pole   pie   attached   triginal   posinsion   wire   nal   screws   nt.   The   whoglass   face   atation   of    gement,   rehed   with   th carryingent hewhich tctheof ide coileout.cancelin arefc''  theof lane uments ss Notes Cur tion   betweefield.   The   cs   a   magnetto   the   interd.     ngular   coil   or   aluminiby   means   es   of    a   stro   a   light   sprition   when   and   the   sat   the   basle   thing   is   ed   is   supportthe   coil   is   lection   take   suspension  pconductor suspeisoilrespectivilof  planehe theand coil rent Electric n   the   curreurrent   to   bic   field   whiction   the   c     of    about   10   um   wire   is   f    quartz   fig   magnet.   gs   which   bthe   currering   are   ce   which   anclosed   in   a   ed   on   levelimeasured   s   place   fro   wire.   main aced  nded.assumi(ly e alocoiltheodirection ty   t   carrying   c   measured   ih   interacts   il   gets   defleto   15   turns   suspended   re   in   betwhe   lower   eings   the   coilt   is   stopponnected   wts   as   the   lmetal   box   g   screws.   Tby   lamp   the   tiny   field gnetic coilthe)g dowthegmagnethe   Page 2 nductor   s   passed   with   the   cted   and     of    a   fine   from   a   een   the   d   of    the   back   to   d.   The   ith   two   eads   of    rovided   e   angle   &   scale   irror   M   isrectan beo ward field.icr ula    ©SelfSt    The   for   Applyinfigure.   constitu   Due   to   restorin   BF il  = ni tSinceMome =Γ=Γ ilB θ φ θ  ∝=∴==== icSincesinsradialusiBy eFromRestor  thecLet ninAci e   on   the   tw   the   right   hhese   two   f te   a   couple.   his   torque   tg   couple   eq sin90 0 il  = φ φ  Bsinn tuareere(sincoutheof t = lbi θ φ θ  →=→=  areB&A n,, )5(190sinanfor that o  pconcaveg)4(sina)uation(2 coupleing throuanglecotorsional 0  Bc  IEMS vertical   wiand   curl   rulrces   being   e   coil   rotatals   to   the   d φ  coiin thenssin) le == i BilB  Γ    θ   → constant all of  position the pieceslenAiB :(3)d  (1)    hich theh wunit  per  ple Electri ‐ High Schoo es   ‘cd’   and   e   for   vector   qual   in   mas   a   restorineflecting   co φ  tototalthel sin  BOC  φ θ φ  = alwaisoilfiemagneticcsinin rotateoilstheof twist al Instr  Tutorial Cla ef’   by   using   product   thnitude,   opg   couple   duple   the   coil   experieque,90ys madeisld   position hewspension 0 uments ss Notes Cur equation   (1   directions   osite   in   dir     to   the   torscomes   to   eq   by thed nce equilibriuf re rent Electric   are   found   of    the   force   ction   parallion   rigidity   s   uilibrium   carr urrent ty   o   have   magare   as   shoel   and   non   ets   in   and   w in tcoiling   Page 3 itude   n   in   the   o ‐ planer   hen   the   magneticeield 
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