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IP Addressing Version 4

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IP v4 and Subnetting
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  Number system : Decimal Format : IPv4 consists of four Octets , uses (. ) to separate between each Octet , each Octet cold have value from ( 0 to 255 ) , each Octet length 8 bits , IPv4 length= 32 bits Octet . Octet .Octet .Octet 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 Counting from right to left 0.0.0.1 0.0.0.255 0.0.1.0 0.0.255.255 0.1.0.0 255.255.255.255    Class A: first octet of address start from 1 to 126 , subnet mask 255.0.0.0 , e.g. 12.1.1.10 Class B: first octet of address start from 128 to 191 , subnet mask 255.255.0.0 , e.g. 129.10.1.100 Class C: first octet of address start from 192 to 223 , subnet mask 255.255.255.0 , e.g. 192.1.1.10  Class D : Class D addresses are reserved for IPv4 multicast addresses. class D addresses 224.0.0.0/4 (or 224.0.0.0, 239.255.255.255). Class E : Class E addresses are reserved for experimental use class E addresses 240.0.0.0/4 (or 240.0.0.0, 255.255.255.255) Subnet Mask When dealing with TCP/IP addresses, each address actually has three components: a network component, a host component, and a subnet mask. The function of the subnet mask is to differentiate among the network address, the host addresses, first valid host , last valid host , and the directed broadcast address. Like an IP address, a subnet mask is 32 bits long. In binary, a 1 in a bit position in the subnet mask represents a network component and a 0 in a bit position represents a host component. Example: 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 : 10.0.0.0 Network ID , 10.0.0.1 first valid host 10.255.255.254 last valid host , 10.255.255.255 Broadcast ID
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