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  MAKING AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF SOAP FROM SUNFLOWER SEED OIL (Helianthus annuus L.) Ir. Indra Surya, M.Sc., Ph. D, Dian Kesuma Sitorus, Hamzah Arifin Sinambela Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of North Sumatra Jl. Dr. Mansyur, Medan, 20155, Indonesia Email Abstract Soap is an alkali metal salt usually a sodium salt of fatty acids. The purpose of this experiment was to study the process of making soap, and to analyze the quality of soap. The materials used in this experiment were aquadest (H 2 O), hydrochloric acid (HCl), ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH), indicator  phenolphtalein (C 20 H 14 O 4 ), sunflower seed oil, sodium oxide (NaOH), perfumes and dyes . The tools used in this experiment are beaker glass, burette, cup, erlenmeyer, measuring cup, hot plate, clamp, stative, and stirrer. In this experiment, sunflower seed oil is heated to temperatures between 60-70 0 C. Then mixed with NaOH slowly, and add perfume and dye while stirring with a magnetic stirrer. After thickening, then poured into a petri dish coated by plastic wrap. Soap analysis was done by weighing 5 grams of soap sample then dissolved with 100 ml ethanoldi in beaker glass. Taken 5 ml of this solution, and drop the phenolphtalein indicator. Then the solution was titrated with 0.1 N HCl solution. The soap mass obtained from this experiment was 99.31 grams with a theoretical mass of 100,228 grams to obtain a correction of 0.9% and the free alkali content of soap was 6.96%. Keywords: free alkali, ethanol, sunflower seed oil, soap, titration . Preliminary Soap is a material used for washing and emulsifying.It consists of two main components namely fatty acids with carbon chains C 16  and sodium or potasium. Soap is a cleanser made by chemical reactions between potassium or sodium with fatty acids from vegetable oil or animal fat. Soap made from NaOH is known as hard soap, while soaps made with KOH are known as soft soaps [1]. The problem formulation of this experiment is how to make soap from sunflower seed oil with NaOH and how to analyze the free alkali content in soap. The purpose of this experiment is to learn how to make soap and ways analyzing the free alkali content of the soap. Theory Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  belongs to the compositae family. In the  beginning sunflower plants are known as ornamental plants. Sunflower seed oil is one type of vegetable oil that the developer is still limited in Indonesia. Sunflower seed oil contains linoleic acid 44-72% and oleic acid 11,7%. Sunflower seed oil is used for various  purposes such as cooking oil, margarine making, cosmetic ingredients and medicines,  besides oil-based cake or pulp containing 13-20% protein, which can be used as animal feed. For example sunflower seeds include low oil cholesterol, corn oil, peanut oil, and soybean oil so it is good for health. One of the main products of sunflower is its seeds are processed as raw materials for the food industry in the form of kwaci and vegetable oilseeds needed in the oil industry. Some industries in Indonesia still have to import sunflower seed oil, the high imports of sunflower seed oil in Indonesia due to lack of supply from domestic, inadequate quality, and continuity of unreliable results [2]. Soap is a cleaning product for human skin such as detergent, soap has hydrophobic group which interact with oil and water-soluble anionic tip. The soap mechanism of lifting oil or fat from the object is water soluble soap molecule and hydrophobic tip surrounds the oil molecule while the dissolved anionic end in water forming micelles so that the oil is detached from the object [3]. Oil saponification is a term applied to operations where oil reacts with alkali to form glycerol and fatty acids. The production of fatty acids and glycerol from essential oils is  particularly important in the oleochemical industry [1]. Figure 1. Saponification Reaction [3] There are several factors that influence the saponification reaction, among others : 1. The concentration of KOH / NaOH solution, the base concentration used is calculated  based on the stoichiometry of the reaction,  in which the addition of the base must be slightly excessive from the oil in order to be completely sterilized. 2. Since the saponification reaction is an exothermic reaction (ΔH negative), then the temperature rise will be able to minimize the  price of K (balance constant), but if it is viewed in terms of kinetics, the temperature rise will increase the reaction rate. 3. Stirring, stirring is carried out to increase the  probability of collisions of reactant molecules reacting. If the collision between reactant molecules gets bigger, then the chance of reaction is getting bigger too. 4. The time, the longer the reaction time causes more oil to be accumulated, the higher the yield, but if the reaction has reached the equilibrium, the addition of time will not increase the amount of oil deposited [1]. Research Methodology The materials used in this experiment are: 1.   Aquadest, as a solvent. 2. Hydrochloric acid, as the test tester at free alkali level. 3. Ethanol, as a solvent of soap to be titrated. 4. Indicator of phenolpthalein, as indicator in titration. 5. Sunflower seed oil, as the main ingredient of soap making. 6. Sodium hydroxide, as a mixing agent in soap making. 7. Perfume, as an odor-giving agent in soap. 8. Dye, as a color giver on soap. The tools used in this experiment are: 1. Beaker glass, as a mixing solution. 2. Buret, as a container of titrant. 3. Petri dish, as a soap printer. 4. Erlenmeyer, as the solution container to be titrated. 5. Hot plate, a tool for heating the sample and solution. 6. Statif, as a burette buffer. 7. Clamps, as a burette clamp. 8. Magnetic stirrer, a tool for stirring solution. 9. Plastic wrap, to coat the petri dish. 10. Electric balance, tool for weighing. In the experiment of making and analyzing the quality of soap there are two steps: making soap and analyzing the free alkali content on soap. Procedure of making soap by  putting 50 grams of sunflower seed oil into  beaker glass and heated samapai temperature 60-70 o C.Kemudian added sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) while stirred with a magnetic stirrer. Then added perfume and dye sufficiently. If the solution has thickened pour into a petri dish that had previously been coated with plastic wrap to prevent the sticky soap in  petri dishes. Silenced for 45 minutes at room temperature. The next step is to analyze the free alkali content of soap by taking 5 grams of soap sample. Cut the soap into a small size. Once it is dissolved with 100 ml of ethanol in a beaker glass. Stirred until the mixture is homogeneous. Then, 5 ml of the solution is then dropped with  phenolpthalein indicator. Titrated with 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to a white solution. Results The results obtained from the experiment of making and analyzing the quality of this soap are: Table 1. Test Data of Soap Quality Preparation and Analysis Material Mol Ratio Mass of Solution (gram) Mass Soap Practice (gram) Error (%) Alkali Free (%) Oil 1 50 Water 9 28,868 99,31   0,9   6,96  NaOH 3 21,36 In this experiment the alkali compound used was sodium hydroxide (NaOH). This experiment begins by mixing sunflower seed oil with sodium hydroxide solution according to the mole ratio then heated over the hot plate. The solution is stirred with a magnetic stirrer while remaining heated. After the thickening solution is added perfume and dye, where in this experiment the dye used is red. If it has thickened the solution poured into a petri dish and silenced until the soap hardens. After the harden is taken as much as 5 grams then dissolved with ethanol. The solution was tested with 2 drops of phenolpthalein and titrated with 0.1N hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution to a white soap solution solution. From the experimental results obtained  by the theoretical mass obtained in theory is 100,228 grams with soap mass practice of 99.31 grams. So that the percentage of errata is 0.9%. Errors in the experiment of making this soap are obtained, caused by: 1. The alkali content used is too excessive or the alkaline solution is too concentrated. 2. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in soap 3. Less in stirring so that NaOH is not mixed evenly in oil solution In a standard study according to SNI 06-3532-1994 ie, the free alkali content of soap is less than 0.1% for sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Free alkali is alkali in soap that is not bound to  fatty acids to form fatty acid (soap). Alkali in  bath soap should not exceed 0.1% for sodium,  because alkaline has a harsh and irritating  properties on the skin. If the free alkali level is too high, it will result in drying out the skin [4]. Based on experimental results of free alkali content obtained from the experiment of soap quality analysis is 6.96%, while based on the theory alkali levels should not exceed 0.1% so that the results obtained are not in accordance with the theory. The things that can cause free alkali levels in this experiment exceed 0.1% are: 1. Adding excessive alkali to the saponification  process 2. Oil and NaOH solution stirred using a magnetic stirrer when heating is not too thick but already put in a petri dish so the soap is difficult to harden. 3. Soap dissolves uniformly in dilution by ethanol at the time of being titrated. Figure 2. Result of Soap Experiment Figure 3. Result of Titration of Soap Solution Conclusion The conclusions obtained from the experiment of soap making and soap quality analysis is the theoretical mass of the theory of 100.228 grams with the mass of soap obtained in practice of 99.31 grams. Therefore, the  percentage of massacabun recovered was 0.9%. In the analysis of soap quality of free alkali content obtained is 6.96%. Therefore the soap is unusable because it contains more than 0.1% free alkali content for sodium. And the soap obtained from this soap-making experiment is a hard soap in accordance with the alkali used ie  NaOH. Thank-you note The author would like to thank Mr. Ir. Indra Surya, M.Sc., Ph.D as the author's lecturer, all laboratory assistants of Organic Chemistry, especially abangda Hamzah Arifin Sinambela, fellow classmates especially M. Otzeman Nur S group XXVIII (twenty eight) who helped in writing this journal. Bibliography [1] Alperdo, John, Lukman Arifin, Rahmawati Situmorang. 2013. Soap Maker And Softener. Riau University. Pekanbaru. [2] Katja G. God. 2012.Quality of Sunflower Oil Commercial And Oil Result of Sunflower Seed Extraction (Helianthus annuus L.). Sam Ratulangi University, Manado. Journal of Scientific Science Vol. 12 No. 1. [3] Andriani, Kiki. 2014. The Effects Of Temperature And Time Of Storage On Color Changes, Perfume Strength, Water Content, Free Alkali, Free Fatty Acids, And Poise Peroxide Numbers In Soap And Solid Soap Soap. University of North Sumatra, Medan. [4] Langingi Raymon, Lidya I. Momuat, Maureen G. Kumaunang. 2012. Making Solid Bath Soap From VCO Carotenoid Containing Carrots. Journal Mipa Unsrat Online 1 (1) 20-23.
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