Kaanapali Makai Watch presentation 6/30/10

1. Ka‘anapali Makai Watch “Talk Story” Planning Meeting Luna Kekoa & Darla White - Division of Aquatic Resource Liz Foote - Coral Reef Alliance & Project…
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  • 1. Ka‘anapali Makai Watch “Talk Story” Planning Meeting Luna Kekoa & Darla White - Division of Aquatic Resource Liz Foote - Coral Reef Alliance & Project S.E.A.-Link Tamara Paltin & Robin Knox - Turbidity Task Force
  • 2. Agenda Pule: Ke‘eaumoku Kapu Part 1: Turbidity Task Force and water quality: Take Action NOW! (Tamara Paltin & Robin Knox) Part 2: NOAA Coral Fellow role & responsibility; Introduction to the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA) and the science behind the KHFMA (Luna Kekoa) Part 3: Ongoing Research in the KHFMA and volunteer opportunities in community-based monitoring (Darla White) Part 4: Ka‘anapali Makai Watch program: Overview, background, and brainstorming (Liz Foote & EVERYONE)
  • 3. Part 1 The Turbidity Task Force Tamara Paltin Save Honolua Coalition Teri Leonard Maui Dreams Dive Co. Wayno Cochran Killah Wiffah Surf Shop
  • 4. Clean Water Committee Turbidity Task Force
  • 5. What is the Turbidity Task Force? <ul><li>A community-based water quality monitoring program designed to decrease the amount of sediment and pollutants that flow into Maui’s near shore waters for both new and existing land-based pollution sources by connecting concerned citizens and institutions to relevant information </li></ul>
  • 6. What is Turbidity? <ul><li>Turbidity is the lack of clarity or cloudiness, haziness of a fluid caused by light reflecting off of individual particles (suspended solids) </li></ul><ul><li>A key measure of water quality </li></ul>Turbidity Standards 10, 100, and 1000 NTU Low turbidity water is clear High turbidity water is cloudy
  • 7. How is turbidity measured? <ul><li>A measure of light attenuation as it passes through a column of water </li></ul><ul><li>Can be measured visually with a secchi disk or with a meter </li></ul>MNMRC member Robin Knox with NOAA Whale Sanctuary Partner Alastair Hebard and Turbidity Meter Mahalo to Coral Reef Alliance, Digital Bus and Aquanimity Now for providing Turbidity Task Force meters
  • 8. What causes Turbidity? <ul><li>Lots of factors natural and manmade </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of phytoplankton and bacteria (in response to nutrients) </li></ul><ul><li>High suspended sediment levels in storm runoff due to erosion; </li></ul><ul><li>Often caused by human activities such as construction, agriculture, urbanized development, and industrial activity. </li></ul>
  • 9. Why do we Care? <ul><li>Contaminants like chemicals, viruses or bacteria can become attached to the suspended solids </li></ul><ul><li>Solids act as shields interfering with water disinfection by sunlight or treatment processes </li></ul><ul><li>In water bodies high turbidity reduce the amount of sunlight reaching lower depths, decrease photosynthesis and inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and corals, </li></ul><ul><li>Settled particles can cover aquatic plants and corals, </li></ul><ul><li>Turbid water is heated by the sun more efficiently than clear water, adding heat stress. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these factors affect uses such as fisheries, aesthetics and recreation </li></ul>Maalaea Bay 75% - 4% Coral Cover Up to 77% Invasive Algae Cover Turbid Water occurs with other symptoms of degradation
  • 10. How does the Turbidity Task Force help improve water quality? <ul><li>Provides sampling kits and training to community </li></ul><ul><li>Raises awareness of water quality and how it is impacted by human activity on land </li></ul><ul><li>Generates data that can be compared to water quality goals (standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Working with Coral Reef Monitoring Data Portal </li></ul><ul><li>( generates reports to EPA and Hawaii Department of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Reports assist agencies in pollution control decisions </li></ul>
  • 11. Hawaii Water Quality Standards (Goals) for Turbidity Waterbody Type geometric mean (NTU) not to exceed 10% (NTU) not to exceed 2% (NTU) a. Streams wet (Nov1 to April 30) 5.00 15.00 25.00 dry (May 1 to Oct 31) 2.00 5.50 10.00 b. estuaries 1.50 3.00 5.00 c. Embayments wet ≥ 1% of bay volume/day 1.50 3.00 5.00 dry < 1% of bay volume/day 0.40 1.00 1.50 d. Open Coastal wet (>3MGD/mile shoreline) 0.50 1.25 2.00 dry (<3MGD/mile shoreline) 0.20 0.50 1.00 e. oceanic 0.03 0.10 0.20 f. R-1 Water 2.00 g. drinking water (varies by treatment and averaging period) 0.5 - <1.0
  • 12. What can you do? <ul><li>Pick up a sampling kit and monitor your favorite waterbody </li></ul><ul><li>Take water quality training classes (Ocean Awareness Training, HIHWNMS Citizen Scientists, Surfrider Bluewater Task Force) </li></ul><ul><li>Help with data entry and reporting to DOH </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on Clean Water Rulemaking and Decisions </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  • 13. Public Sample Collection Site Meter Site Data Collector Quality Control Reviewer Reporting observation, sample collection, recordkeeping Sample preservation, recordkeeping Sample preservation, recordkeeping, turbidity analysis, meter care Tabulates and enters data from meter sites Reviews data throughout process Retrieves data from database for reporting back to community and submittal to DOH
  • 14. Turbidity Task Force - Key Info Contact: Tamara Paltin, Save Honolua Coalition [email_address] TURBIDITY SAMPLE DROP-OFF LOCATIONS: South Maui: Maui Dreams Dive Company 1993 South Kihei Rd; (808) 874-5332 West Maui: Kilah Wiffah Surf Shop Mon-Fri, 9 am - 5 pm; located at the intersection of Honoapiilani Highway and Halawai Drive; (808) 264-2648 Download Forms:
  • 15. Part 2 Introduction to the NOAA Coral Fellow and the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA)
  • 16. Luna Kekoa Education University of Miami, MSC/BIO Experience Kaala Farms : “Opelu Project” Community-based Subsistence Fishing Areas : Miloli’i, Hawaii Ha’ena, Kaua’i
  • 17. Ho’okena / Honaunau <ul><li>Makai watch </li></ul><ul><li>Summer Programs </li></ul><ul><li>- Kukulu Kumuhana O Honaunau </li></ul><ul><li>- Pihana Na Mamo </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Benthic Baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Mapping </li></ul>
  • 18. CREEL Surveys
  • 19. Makai Watch <ul><li>Hawaiian Names of Area </li></ul><ul><li>Mo’olelo of the Area </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Fishing Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Mauka / Makai Relationship </li></ul>
  • 20. Coral Reefs 101 Coral reefs should be considered as whole ecosystems. The habitat and associated marine life are deeply interlinked! Coral reefs evolved in Clean , Clear, Low nutrient water <ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Physics </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Inseparable </li></ul>
  • 21. Coral Reef Ecology What does a healthy reef look like?
  • 22. = Healthy Stocks of Herbivores Healthy Coral Reefs Ecological Harmony Photo Credits: Eric Brown, Matt Ramsey, & Matt Barton
  • 23. Ecological Change = Phase Shift Images by Jennifer Smith, PhD
  • 24. Invasive algae (limu) will outcompete corals for space on the reef Do you see any fish in this photo? Photo by Darla White If a reef is not growing IT IS ERODING
  • 25. There is Plenty of Blame to go Around Maui’s Reefs in Danger
  • 26. Maui’s Reefs in Danger Sedimentation Invasive Algae Over Fishing Over-use Groundings and Anchor Damage Land Based Pollution
  • 27. AG Intensive Urban Areas
  • 28. A. spicifera H. musciformis G. salicornia Maui Nui’s Invasive Algae Spread of Invasive Algae in MHI, based on 2003 surveys by UH Botany. Photos and maps: JE Smith and E. Conklin.
  • 29. Six out of the nine surveyed locations have significantly declined in coral cover Maui’s Coral Cover by Study Site 1999 - 2009
  • 30. Kahekili Park: Corals Under Stress Kahekili Park 55% - 34% Coral Cover Up to 35% Invasive Algae Cover
  • 31. Kahekili Park 3m Site Impacts from invasive algae 1999 - 2005
  • 32. Kahekili Park 3m Site (1999 - 2006)
  • 33. * Friedlander & DeMartini 2002 [Marine Ecology Progress Series 230:253-264] % of MHI REEFS: Statewide Fish Biomass How Does Population and accessibility impact fish stocks? Kahekili Herbivores Kahekili PRIMARY SECONDARY APEX 28% 37% 16% 20%
  • 34. NWHI* * Friedlander & DeMartini 2002 [Marine Ecology Progress Series 230:253-264] % of MHI REEFS: Statewide Fish Biomass How Does Population and accessibility impact fish stocks? PRIMARY SECONDARY APEX 28% 37% 16% 20%
  • 35. Hunter et al. Ecological Success Alien and Invasive Algae [] Herbivores and Invasive Algae Friedlander et al. in review MEPS More Herbivore Fish Biomass means Less Algae Herbivore Fish Prefer to Eat Acanthophora spicifera
  • 36. The Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area Keka‘a Point (Black Rock) Honokowai Beach Park N <ul><li>Prohibited Activities Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Removing or killing any surgeon fish, parrotfish, or chub </li></ul><ul><li>Removing or killing any sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>Fish feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed Activities Include: </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing for or Removing all other legally harvested marine life. </li></ul><ul><li>Using bait and/or other fish attractants while legally fishing. </li></ul>
  • 37. The Reef at Kahekili Why Kahekili? Corals in distress Loss of coral, increase of algae Still has complexity Not too degraded 50% Reef Structure Can Support Fish Reef Needs Immediate Help
  • 38. ECOLOGICAL SERVICES Simple Concept: Using herbivorous fishes (fish that eat limu) as a means to control algae growth on the reef Photo by Darla White
  • 39. Herbivorous Fish Species PHOTOS BY KEOKI & YUKO STENDER www. marinelifephotography .com Parrotfishes, Family Scaridae uhu
  • 40. Herbivorous Fish Species www. marinelifephotography .com Surgeonfishes, Family Acanthuridae PHOTOS BY KEOKI & YUKO STENDER
  • 41. Photo by Darla White Herbivorous Fish Species Chubs or Rudderfishes, Family Kyphosidae nenue
  • 42. Part 3 Ongoing Research in the KHFMA and volunteer opportunities in community-based monitoring
  • 43. Research at Kahekili University of Hawaii (UH) Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) US Geological Survey (USGS) Scripps Institution of Oceanography National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) The Kahekili HFMA is the Priority Site Designation By the Hawaii Coral Program under the US Coral Reef Task Force
  • 44. Iuri Herzfeld – UH Mānoa Non-point Source Pollution Mapping of Physical & Chemical Parameters Jet Ski Surveys
  • 45. <ul><li>Chip Hunt – USGS </li></ul><ul><li>Wading Surveys – </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric Brightener Fluorescence </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Isotopes </li></ul>“ Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples” Hunt & Rosa, 2010 USGS Report
  • 46. Meghan Dailer – Researcher, UH Botany Where are the nutrients coming from out on the reef? Native algae Ulva spp. -> “ The reefs near at Kahekili receive consistent inputs of sewage effluent via groundwater seeps” (Dailer, et al., 2010)
  • 47. <ul><li>Melissa Garren – Scripps </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial Ecology on the Reef Influenced by Fresh Water Seeps </li></ul><ul><li>Corals, </li></ul><ul><li>Reef Sediments, & </li></ul><ul><li>Water column.  </li></ul>“ Seeps at Kahekili contain elevated levels of bacteria that can be cultured on marine agars in the presence of antibiotics” (Garren, EPA testimony Lahaina Injection well).
  • 48. <ul><li>Emily Kelly – Scripps </li></ul><ul><li>(& dive buddy Mike, Scripps) </li></ul><ul><li>How much algae is currently growing on the reef? </li></ul><ul><li>How much algae fish will eat? </li></ul><ul><li>In what situations coral can out-compete algae?   </li></ul>
  • 49. Robin Knox – UH Botany Integrated Ecosystem Management Identify point and nonpoint sources of nutrients; conduits to the ocean; and estimate mass loading (lbs/day). Do areas with high nutrient levels and algal blooms encourage growth of bacteria that cause human diseases? Identify programs to manage and control nutrient releases Investigate the relation of human pathogens to harmful algal blooms Goal: Reduction of Land-based Pollution in watersheds mauka of Kahekili HFMA Where are the nutrients coming from? How much is coming from these sources? How do nutrients get to the ocean? What can we do to reduce pollutants reaching the HFMA?
  • 50. What’s Happening to the Reef???
  • 51. James Wicklund – DAR Intern Kamehameha School, Maui Mapping ‘Dead Zones’ at Kahekili
  • 52. Dark brown indicates dead coral with algal overgrowth Notice that the dead areas are flat compared to the live coral
  • 53. Kahekili Herbivore Grazing Surveys Engaging the Community “ Citizen Science”
  • 54. Maui’s Citizen Scientists Volunteer contributions are invaluable to managers in the efforts to better understand our coral reef ecosystems. These data fill in knowledge gaps and paint a clearer picture of the complexities of which science still knows remarkably little.
  • 55. Figure 3. Parrotfish grazing pressure by size class calculated for area (m 2 ) scraped annually, based on bite data and daily grazing behavior for Chlorurus and Scarus spp. by Ong (2008). Pearson’s correlation for positive linear relationship is significant (0.925, P-value = 0.000).
  • 56. Grazing School at Kahekili
  • 57. Grazing School at Midway Photo by Darla White
  • 58. Coral disease in Hawaii Greta Aeby - HIMB 17 disease states widespread low prevalence Montipora multi-focal TLS Montipora dark band Por trematodiasis Poc white-band disease Acrop white syndrome Porites growth anomalies Coral Bleaching
  • 59. Alien Species Roi Peacock Grouper <ul><li>CPUE – Catch Per Unit Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Population Estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Ciguatera Research </li></ul>Photo by Skippy Hau Photo by John Randall Data will further our understanding
  • 60. Large Parrotfishes Uhu >45 cm (1.5 ft) Abundance Single (1) Few (2-10) Many (11-100) Abundant (> 100) Red – Female / Initial Blue – Male / Terminal
  • 61. Large Grazing Schools (> 300 fishes) List most abundant species present Photo by Darla White
  • 62. Benefits of Volunteering Gain valuable field experience Learn by doing Resume building Make new connections Bring data to managers Real Impact
  • 63. Part 4 Ka‘anapali Makai Watch - Overview & Brainstorming
  • 64. What is Makai Watch? <ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Education & Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Observation & Compliance </li></ul>
  • 65. What has been going on in the area? <ul><li>Outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Hotels, fishing supply stores & snorkel/dive shops </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctuary education station at Whaler’s Village </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>HEA surveys </li></ul><ul><li>REEF surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Water Quality Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Coral Reef Monitoring Data Portal workshops </li></ul>
  • 66. Get Involved!
  • 67. Outreach in support of the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area (KHFMA)
  • 68. International Year of the Reef Outreach station at Pu‘u Keka‘a (Black Rock), 2008 Current location: outreach at Whaler’s Village with HIHWNMS Volunteer Corps
  • 69. Take a Bite out of Fish Feeding Generalists increase Diversity decreases Online directory: “Fish-Friendly Business Alliance”
  • 70. West Maui Sporting Goods and Fishing Supply Maui Sights and Treasures
  • 71. Volunteer! Fish grazing Fish behavior Grazing schools
  • 72. <ul><li>resources & links </li></ul><ul><li>HEA protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grazing, behavior, schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Quality Monitoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic parameters, bacteria, visual assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large,Terminal parrotfish & Large Grazing Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Roi Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer Info: track your time & activity! </li></ul> Next workshop: stay tuned…
  • 73. Large, Terminal Parrotfishes and grazing schools <ul><li>>45 cm (~1.5’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Y/N; S F M A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminal? Y/N; S F M A </li></ul><ul><li>School > 300? Y/N </li></ul>
  • 74. Water Quality Monitoring Robin Knox Ananda Stone
  • 75. Snapshot Day: October 3rd, 2009
  • 76. FIN: Fish Identification Network All FIN needs to be FUN is U! <ul><li>Email List: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook Group </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Monthly surveys Maluaka Beach every 1st Saturday! Kahekili - Honolua July 17th!
  • 77. How do I do a REEF Survey? Now online data entry at !
  • 78. What is Needed? <ul><li>Outreach & Education </li></ul><ul><li>Local community </li></ul><ul
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