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Kant's Critique of Judgement

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This paper aims to analyze the each and every point of Kant concepts i-e:sublime,beauty,Modality,4moments etc.
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  1 Immanuel Kant- Critique of Judgment Introduction   Kant's Critique of Judgment is arguably the most important and the most influential work in the whole history of Aesthetics. It was published in 1790. The overall goal of the Critique of the Power of Judgment was to restore the unity of philosophy that was lost due to a sharp separation of its two main provinces: the realm of theoretical knowledge, and the realm of practical knowledge. Immanuel Kant was an 18th century German philosopher whose work initiated dramatic changes in the fields of epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, and teleology. Kant believes that he is able to show that the aesthetic judgment is not fundamentally different from ordinary theoretical cognition of nature, and he that believes he can show that aesthetic judgment has a deep similarity to moral judgment. For these two reasons, Kant claimed that he can demonstrate that the physical and moral universes -and the philosophies and forms of thought that present in them - are not only compatible, but unified.   Kant used both terms (Critique  and Judgment) from the title of his essay in their srcinal meaning, not in their current usage. There are two main parts of philosophy: the theoretical and the practical. These two realms of "legislation" derive their principles from the two corresponding cognitive faculties : the   understanding   and   the   reason .  They have their own separate fields of objects (nature and morality) with their respective conceptual frameworks (necessity and freedom). According to Kant, there is no freedom in the world of nature - everything works according to the laws of necessity. In contrast, there is necessity in the world of morality even though its very existence remains incomprehensible. The theoretical philosophy delineates the knowledge of nature according to the conditions of possible experience; the practical philosophy sets the limits of desire under the unconditional demands of moral law. Kant had begun the Critique of Judgment   with an account of disinterested experience of beauty, considered as an apparently coherent and unified notion —  contemplated form which pleases universally without a concept. He considers many examples of natural and artificial beauty and has  2 become troubled by the relation of cognition to aesthetic experience; hence he feels the need to distinguish free from dependent beauty. While he remains adamant that judgments according to an ideal standard stand apart from pure judgments of taste, the forms and varieties of dependent beauty dominate his thinking though the remainder of the “Analytic of the Beautiful.”  Aesthetical judgments can be divided just like theoretical (logical) judgments into empirical and pure. The first assert pleasantness or unpleasantness; the second assert the beauty of an object or of the manner of representing it. The former are judgments of Sense (material aesthetical judgments); the latter (as formal) are alone strictly judgments of Taste. A judgment of taste is therefore pure, only so far as no merely empirical satisfaction is mingled with its determining ground. But this always happens if charm or emotions have any share in the  judgment by which anything is to be described as beautiful. All artistic beauty is dependent beauty. He insisted that in order to judge natural beauty, one needs no concept of what kind of thing an object is meant to be. But when one declare a work of art beautiful, Kant says, “then we must first base it on a conc ept of what the thing is mean to be, since art always presuppo ses a purpose in the cause (and its causality).”  For Kant, the Judgment is a faculty, not only a proposition in which a predicate qualifies the subject. Compare our ordinary admonition: "Use your good judgment!" Kant’s Four Moments of Aesthetic Judgment Immanuel Kant develops a theory that aesthetic experience is contemplative. He achieves this through the analysis of four moments. ‘The  judgment of taste is aesthetic’. When he says  judgments of taste, he does not mean taste in sense of eating, but taste in the sense of whether someone has good or bad taste in something. There are four aspects of taste, which are as follows: quality, quantity, relation of the purpose and satisfaction of the object. These four aspects through which Kant expresses his aesthetic judgments are known as his four Moments, which are most commonly known as: 1- First Moment-Moment of Disinterest  3 2. Second Moment-Moment of Universality 3. Third Moment-Moment of Purposiveness of object 4. Fourth Moment-Moment of Necessity of object. First Moment- Moment of Quality- Disinterest Definition of the Beautiful derived from the first moment: “ Taste is the faculty of estimating an object or a mode of representation by means of a delight or aversion apart from any interest. The object of such a delight is called beautiful.”   ‘The delight which determines the judgment of taste is independent of all interest’. Kant describes aesthetic judgments firstly as disinterested, saying that it is only disinterested pleasure that can ground aesthetic judgments. Kant begins his account of disinterestedness by defining what interest is. Interest: -  The delight which we connect with the representation of the real existence of an object is called interest. There are two types of interest; one is by sensation (in the agreeable) and the other by concepts (in the good). Sensation has got to do with the existence of a thing. When something exists we can feel it, this is a common notion for everyone as we all say, if we can feel ourselves pinching ourselves then we are not dreaming, it is real. The judgment should deal only with the form or design of the object and not pay any heed to sensations which lie within that form . This is indeed a Kantian claim, as Kant’s notion of disinterest is that of dismissing any interest when judging a thing beautiful. We may look at a painting and get pleasure from it because it has our favorite color in it, or maybe, the subject matter is that of something we have had past pleasure from. For example, we find pleasure staring off into the night, contemplating the vastness of it all and gazing at the stars. Because of this Van Gog h’s 'Starry Night', gives us great pleasure because it reminds us of the pleasure we got from seeing the real stars.  4 This is not a true aesthetic judgment according to Kant. The other part, judgments of the good, can be defined as ethically based. We may bias our view of a painting because its content brings about feelings of conflict either ethical, political or. An example of this could be a painting depicting a massacre. Any moral person would have contentions with this depiction, maybe having feelings of disgust or loathing on the part of the massacrists. These feelings will be ethically, politically or religiously based, or any combination of these three. The good is that what pleases by means of reason through concepts. There are two kinds of good: (1)   The useful which pleases as a means for something else (instrumental good). (2)   The good in itself which pleases as such for itself (intrinsic good). In both kinds of good there is a satisfaction in the presence of an object or an action with regard to a certain purpose. Something good could be identified only by means of a concept that states what that object ought to be. Aesthetic judgments are free from such interests. Judgments of the good miss the experience one has when making an aesthetic judgment about the form of an artwork. Form in an artwork or object is the physical property that belongs to that artifact, i.e. the properties in space and time. For instance, the shape of a statue, its lines and curves that make up its composition are its form. This has nothing to do with content; these two aspects of an artifact should be distinguished as being separate from each other. What is meant by content is the presence of an artifact whose recognition brings about feelings of the good and the agreeable. Content is thus interested. The content of an artwork is a purely subjective experience. Any feelings of interest we have about the contents is strictly in the mind of the observer and cannot be deemed to be universal. For the experience is purely that of the individual and there cannot be an expectation for everyone else to agree with it. Thusly an aesthetic judgment , defined so far, is on which is free of interest both in ‘the good’ and ‘the agreeable’. Th e judge is only looking at the form of the artwork and setting aside all feelings which the content evokes. To be disinterested when judging art means, that interest is not determining our judgment and free from interest. Pure aesthetic judgments are unconcerned with the real existence of the object. Disinterest is at its most basic definition an attempt to judge something beautiful, however remaining  5 impartial while doing so. Kant talks about pleasure throughout his account of the beautiful, and to  judge something aesthetically, a person is gaining a pleasure in something that they are disinterested in. Something must exist for it to be judged aesthetically, however, the judgment itself is a mental experience. Second Moment- Moment of Quantity- Universality Definition of the Beautiful drawn from the Second Moment:- ‘ The beautiful is that which, apart from concepts, is represented as the object of a universal delight.’   The second of Kant’s four moments is that of universality . Universality is not based on any concepts. If the judgment has concepts then it is suggesting that beauty is the property of the object that is being  judged and this is not the case. Just as the first moment states that one judges something to be beautiful based on the pleasure one gains in apprehending the object, second moment states that pleasure in the beautiful is not wholly subjective, others should find the object beautiful as well. Basically, there are two kinds of judgments, one is subjective and the other is objective. Subjective  judgments are those in which we judge something according to our own views and objective  judgments are those in which we judge something according to its particular concept. Kant argues that subjective judgments are universal. This point creates confusion that how the subjective judgment can be universal as it involves our own views. Kant argues that subjective judgment can be universal if the  judgment we made is accepted as universally correct. For example, if one person says that the taste of chocolate pleases him and somebody else says that he did not like chocolate, then both of these are individual responses, both are correct. The first person do not expect everybody to like chocolate; neither does the other person think that everyone will not like chocolate just because he do not like it. Both persons have made subjective judgment about chocolate but this is not a universal judgment. Kant argues that subjective judgments should be such that will be accepted by all. Taking chocolate as an example once more, if one says that he likes chocolate in relation to it containing a lot of sugar, then this will be a subjective universal judgment according to Kant because it is a universal fact that chocolate is sweet. This subjective judgment will be accepted universally. Therefore, aesthetic  judgments are like subjective judgments. Kant overcomes this obstacle of beauty becoming a property
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