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Karbic, Ur. Rady. the Laws and Customs of Medieval Croatia and Slavonia. a Guide to the Extant Sources

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Short description of medieval Croatian cities Statute books
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    The Laws and Customs of Medieval Croatia and Slavonia A Guide to the Extant Sources Dair Karbić ad Marija Karbić  Edited by Martyn Rady London UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies Studies in Russia and Eastern Europe 2013    2   THE LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF MEDIEVAL CROATIA AND SLAVONIA: A GUIDE TO THE EXTANT SOURCES BY DAMIR KARBIĆ AND MARIJA KARBIĆ  EDITED BY MARTYN RADY Studies in Russia and Eastern Europe, no 10 ISBN 978-0-903425-86-5 © SSEES, University College London, 2013 Dai ыaić, Maija ыaić  and Martyn Rady have asserted their rights to be identified as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988    3   Introduction The territory of present-day Croatia was in the Middle Ages divided into several distinct regions. Politically, the most important area was the medieval Kingdom of Dalmatia  – Croatia, which stretched from the mountain chains of the Dinaric Alps to the Adriatic Sea. This was an independent kingdom in the early Middle Ages, but was united with Hungary around the beginning of the twelfth century. It retained nonetheless a certain measure of autonomy which was demonstrated in its institutional organization (a governor or ban, a separate diet, counties, and so on) in which the aristocracy and nobility played the leading role. In respect of its social organization, the kingdom had two very different parts: the coastal cities with their communal organization and autonomy; and the hinterland which was divided into counties governed by royal officials or hereditary counts. The coastal part of the kingdom alternated between the rule of the kings of Hungary  – Croatia and the rule of Venice, with Venice taking over the region at the beginning of the fifteenth century (with the exception of Dubrovnik). The coastal cities of Dalmatia also included Kotor and Budva, which are now in Montenegro. The north-western part of present-day Croatia was separately organized as the province of Slavonia. This region may have previously formed a part of the historic Croatian kingdom, but was gradually incorporated into the Hungarian kingdom during the late eleventh century. Slavonia also enjoyed a certain level of autonomy, even though this was politically less pronounced than its Croatian counterpart. It also had certain institutions of its own (ban, diet, counties, and so on) and from the thirteenth century was usually called a regnum (realm). What is now the north-eastern part of Croatia and confusingly called today Slavonia (the medieval counties of Požega/Pozsega, Sije/Szeé ad Vukoo/Valkó ad a part of the county of Baranja/Baranya) was at that time included in the Kingdom of Hungary and was not formally a part of Slavonia. Medieval Slavonia also included three counties (Dubica, Vrbas/Orbász and Sana/Szana) which are now a part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most south-westerly part of present-day Croatia, the Istrian peninsula, was in the Central and Late Middle Ages divided between the Holy Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice. Legal institutions tended to replicate these political and geographical divisions. The coastal cities of Dalmatia shared similar legal arrangements, characterized by statutes    4  enacted by the individual communes, although their relative sophistication differed from place to place. The statutes of the more developed communes (such as Zadar, Dubrovnik and Split) were compiled earlier, were fuller and more systematically arranged, and were less shaped by external influences. By contrast, the less developed communes, such as Bač and Hvar, often received their statutes as part of the process whereby Venice sought to reorganize legal institutions in the area that came under its rule. Semi-autonomous rural communes dependent on the neighbouring urban communes also drew up their own statutes, as for instance at Mljet and Lastovo. The second distinctive group is that of Istria. The Istrian communities also had their own statutes, which are similar in many respects to those of Dalmatia. Since this area did not come in its entirety under Venetian rule, Venetian influences were correspondingly less, especially in the rural communes of Inner Istria. The third category comprises the statutes and law codes of the mostly rural areas of the medieval Croatian kingdom (although we include Senj here). This legislation was less uniform than those of Dalmatian and Istrian cities, being primarily collections of local customs. These customs were variously influenced by the legal regime prevailing throughout the medieval Croatian kingdom as a whole (as for instance in respect of Novigrad and Poljica) and by local circumstances (as in respect of Vinodol or Vrana). This legislation was less developed than elsewhere, often being put into writing at moments of profound political change. This was most notably the case when they passed under Venetian rule. The laws and statutes of the Kvarner region demonstrate characteristics of all three groups. The Kvarner region is geographically placed in the middle of the three clusters that we have identified, contained different types of communities (ranging from urban communes to rural settlements), and was subject to different political authorities and different legal influences. Nevertheless, the norms contained in the Kvarner statutes demonstrate sufficiently strong similarities to constitute a distinctive legal group. Medieval Slavonia is a separate case. There was no regular legislative activity in Slavonia during the Middle Ages, as a result of its predominantly oral legal culture. In its legal arrangements, it was closely connected to Hungary and its legal regime did not differ much from the one prevailing there. Autonomous legal developments may, nonetheless, be detected in respect of its cities and of the brotherhood of the Turopolje nobles. Also, the

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