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   THE KORAN: COMMONLY CALLED THE ALKORAN OF MOHAMMED.  Translated into English from the Original Arai! WITH EXPLANATORY NOTES TAKEN FROM THE MOST  APPROVED COMMENTATORS .  TO #H$CH $% &REF$'ED A &REL$M$NARY D$%CO(R%E )Y *EOR*E %ALE. 1    TO THER$*HT HON. +OHN LORD CARTERET.ONE OF THE LORD% OF H$% MA+E%TY,% MO%T HONO(RA)LE &R$-Y CO(NC$L.  MY LORD NOT#$TH%TAND$N* the great hono/r and res0e!t generall1 and deser2edl1 0aid to the memories of those 3ho ha2e fo/nded states or oliged a 0eo0le 1 the instit/tion of la3s 3hi!h ha2e made them 0ros0ero/s and !onsiderale in the 3orld 1et the legislator of the Aras has een treated in so 2er1 di4erent a manner 1 all 3ho a!5no3ledge not his !laim to a di2ine mission and 1 Christians es0e!iall1 that 3ere not 1o/r lordshi0,s 6/st dis!ernment s/7!ientl1 5no3n $ sho/ld thin5 m1self /nder a ne!essit1 of ma5ing an a0olog1 for 0resenting the follo3ing translation. The rememran!e of the !alamities ro/ght on so man1 nations 1 the !on8/ests of the Araians ma1 0ossil1 raise some indignation against him 3ho formed them to em0ire9 /t this eing e8/all1 a00li!ale to all !on8/erors !o/ld not of itself o!!asion all the detestation 3ith 3hi!h the name of Mohammed is loaded. He has gi2en a ne3 s1stem of religion 3hi!h has had still greater s/!!ess than the arms of his follo3ers and to estalish this religion made /se of an im0ost/re9 and on this a!!o/nt it is s/00osed that he m/st of ne!essit1 ha2e een a most aandoned 2illain and his memor1 is e!ome infamo/s. )/t asMohammed ga2e his Aras the est religion he !o/ld as 3ell as the est la3s 0referale. atleast to those of the an!ient 0agan la3gi2ers $ !onfess $ !annot see 3h1 he deser2es not e8/al res0e!ttho/gh not 3ith Moses or +es/s Christ 3hose la3s !ame reall1 from Hea2en 1et 3ith Minos or N/ma not3ithstanding the distin!tion of a learned 3riter 3ho seems to thin5 it a greater !rime to ma5e /se of an im0ost/re to set /0 a new  religion fo/nded on thea!5no3ledgment of one tr/e *od and to destro1 idolatr1 than to /se the same means to gain re!e0tion to r/les and reg/lations for the more orderl1 0ra!ti!e of heathenism alread1 estalished. To e a!8/ainted 3ith the 2ario/s la3s and !onstit/tions of !i2ili;ed nations es0e!iall1 of those 3ho <o/rish in o/r o3n time is 0erha0s the most /sef/l 0art of 5no3ledge: 3herein tho/gh 1o/r lordshi0 3ho shines 3ith so m/!h distin!tion in the nolest asseml1 in the 3orld 0e!/liarl1 e=!els9 1et as the la3 of Mohammed 1 reason of the odi/m it lies /nder and the strangeness of the lang/age in 3hi!h it is 3ritten has een so m/!h negle!ted. $ <atter m1self some things in the follo3ing sheets ma1 e ne3 e2en to a 0erson of 1o/r lordshi0,s e=tensi2e learning9 and if 3hat $ ha2e 3ritten ma1 e an1 3a1 entertaining or a!!e0tale to 1o/r lordshi0 $ shall not regret the 0ains it has !ost me. $ 6oin 3ith the general 2oi!e in 3ishing 1o/r lordshi0 all the hono/r and ha00iness 1o/r 5no3n 2irt/es and merit deser2e and am 3ith 0erfe!t res0e!t MY LORD  Yo/r lordshi0,s most h/mleAnd most oedient ser2ant *EOR*E %ALE. 2   A %KETCHOF THEL$FE OF *EOR*E %ALE.  OF the life of *EOR*E %ALE a man of e=tensi2e learning and !onsiderale literar1 talent 2er1 fe3 0arti!/lars ha2e een transmitted to /s 1 his !ontem0oraries. He is said to ha2e een orn in the !o/nt1 of Kent and the time of his irth m/st ha2e een not long 0re2io/s to the !lose of the se2enteenth !ent/r1. His ed/!ation he re!ei2ed at the King,s %!hool Canter/r1. -oltaire 3ho esto3s high 0raise on the 2ersion of the Kor>n asserts him to ha2e s0ent ?2e@and@t3ent1 1ears in Araia and to ha2e a!8/ired in that !o/ntr1 his 0rofo/nd 5no3ledge of the Arai! lang/age and !/stoms. On 3hat a/thorit1 this is asserted it 3o/ld no3 e fr/itless to endea2o/r to as!ertain. )/t that the assertion is an erroneo/s one there !an e no reason to do/t9 it eing o00osed 1 the st/orn e2iden!e of dates and fa!ts. $t is almost !ertain that %ale 3as ro/ght /0 to the la3 andthat he 0ra!tised it for man1 1ears if not till the end of his !areer. He is said 1 a !o@e=isting 3riter to ha2e 8/itted his legal 0/rs/its for the 0/r0ose of a00l1ing himself to the st/d1 of the eastern and other lang/ages oth an!ient and modern. His g/ide thro/gh the la1rinth of the oriental diale!ts 3as Mr. Dadi!hi the 5ing,s inter0reter. $f it e tr/e that he e2er relin8/ished the 0ra!ti!e of the la3 it 3o/ld a00ear that he m/st ha2e res/med it efore his de!ease9 for in his address to the reader 0re?=ed to the Kor>n he 0leads as an a0olog1 for the dela1 3hi!h had o!!/rred in 0/lishing the 2ol/me that the 3or5 3as !arried on at leis/re times onl1 and amidst the ne!essar1 a2o!ations of a tro/lesome 0rofession.B This alone 3o/ld s/7!e to sho3 that -oltaire 3as in error. )/t to this m/st e added that the e=isten!e of %ale 3as terminated at an earl1 0eriod and that in at least his latter 1ears he 3as engaged in literar1 lao/rs of no tri<ing magnit/de. Thestor1 of his ha2ing d/ring a 8/arter of a !ent/r1 resided in Araia e!omes therefore an o2io/s im0ossiilit1 and m/st e dismissed to ta5e its 0la!e among those ?!tions 1 3hi!h iogra0h1 has often een en!/mered and disgra!ed. Among the fe3 0rod/!tions of 3hi!h %ale is 5no3n to e the a/thor is a 0art of The *eneral Di!tionar1 B in ten 2ol/mes folio. To the translation of )a1le 3hi!h is in!or0orated 3ith this 2ol/mino/s 3or5 he is stated to ha2e een a large !ontri/tor. #hen the 0lan of the (ni2ersal Histor1 3as arranged %ale 3as one of those 3ho 3ere sele!ted to !arr1 it into e=e!/tion. His !oad6/tors 3ere %3inton eminent as an anti8/ar1 and remar5ale for asen!e of mind9  %hel2o!5e srcinall1 a na2al o7!er9 the 3ell informed intelligent and laorio/s Cam0ell9 that sing/lar !hara!ter *eorge &salmana;ar9 and Ar!hiald )o3er 3ho after3ards e!ame an o6e!t of /nen2iale notoriet1.  The 0ortion of the histor1 3hi!h 3as s/00lied 1 %ale !om0rises The $ntrod/!tion !ontaining the Cosmogon1 or Creation of the #orld9B and the 3hole or nearl1 the 3hole of the s/!!eeding !ha0ter 3hi!h tra!es the narrati2e of e2ents from the !reation to the <ood. $n the 0erforman!e of his tas5 he dis0la1s a thoro/gh a!8/aintan!e 3ith his s/6e!t9 and his st1le tho/gh not 0olished into elegan!e is neat and 0ers0i!/o/s. $n a Fren!h iogra0hi!al di!tionar1 of anti@lieral 0rin!i0les a 3riter a!!/ses him of ha2ing ado0ted a s1stem hostile to tradition and the %!ri0t/res and !om0osed his a!!o/nt of the Cosmogon1 3ith the 2ie3 of gi2ing !/rren!1 to his hereti!al o0inions. Either the a!!/ser ne2er read the arti!le 3hi!h he !ens/res or he has 3ilf/ll1 misre0resented it9 for it a4ords the f/llest !ontradi!tion to the !harge as does also the se8/ent !ha0ter9 and he m/st therefore e !ontented to !hoose et3een the demerit of eing a slanderer thro/gh l/ndering and re!5less ignoran!e or thro/gh sheer malignit1 of heart. Tho/gh his share in these 0/li!ations a4ords 0roof of the er/dition and ailit1 of %ale it 0roal1 3o/ld not alone ha2e een s/7!ient to 0reser2e his name from oli2ion. His !laim to e rememered rests 0rin!i0all1 on his 2ersion of the Kor>n 3hi!h a00eared in No2emer  in a 8/arto 2ol/me and 3as ins!ried to Lord Carteret. The dedi!ator does not disgra!ehimself 1 des!ending to that f/lsome ad/lator1 st1le 3hi!h 3as then too fre8/entl1 em0lo1ed in addressing the great. As a translator he had the ?eld almost entirel1 to himself9 there eing at that time no English translation of the Mohammedan !i2il and s0irit/al !ode e=!e0t a ad !o01 of the des0i!ale one 1 D/ R1er. His 0erforman!e 3as /ni2ersall1 and 6/stl1 a00ro2ed of still still remains in re0/te and is not li5el1 to e s/0erseded 1an1 other of the 5ind. $t ma1 0erha0s e regretted that he did not 0reser2ethe di2ision into 2erses as %a2ar1 has sin!e done instead of !onne!ting them into a !ontin/o/s narrati2e. %ome of the 0oeti!al s0irit is /na2oidal1 lost 1 the !hange. )/t this is all that !an e o6e!ted to him. $t is $ elie2e admitted that he is in no !ommon degree faithf/l to his srcinal9 and his n/mero/s notes and &reliminar1 Dis!o/rse manifest s/!h a 0erfe!t 5no3ledge of Eastern haits manners traditions and la3s as !o/ld ha2e een a!8/ired onl1 1 an a!/te mind !a0ale of s/mitting to 1ears of 0atient toil. )/t tho/gh his 3or5 0assed safel1 thro/gh the ordeal of !riti!ism it has een made the 0rete=t for a !al/mn1 against him. $t has een de!lared thathe 0/ts the Christian religion on the same footing 3ith the M/hammedan9 and some !haritale 0ersons ha2e e2en s/00osed him to ha2e een a disg/ised 0rofessor of the latter. The srcin of this slander 3e ma1 tra!e a!5 to the strange oli8/it1 of 0rin!i0les and the lind mer!iless rage 3hi!h are !hara!teristi! of igotr1. %ale 3as not one of those 3ho imagine

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