Lesson 2 19.10.11 Word Formation Official

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  A linguistic system is composed of: SOUNDS:Phonetics FORMS:Morphology (e.g. the form of the words, how  word is written!Synt (e.g. how forms re lin#ed together!$ORDS:%e icon M&'NN) OF *+& $ORD: Semntics (e.g. the mening of  word, the ide it e presses! TWO MORPHOLOGIES t is possile to disting-ish two #inds of morphologicl r-les. Some morphologicl r-les relte todifferent forms of the sme le eme while other r-les relte to different le emes. R-les of the first#ind re clled inflectionl r-les, while those of the second #ind re clled word formtion. *he &nglish pl-rl, s ill-strted y dog nd dogs, is n inflectionl r-le compo-nds li#e dogctcher or dishwsher pro/ide n e mple of  word formtion r-le. nformlly, word formtionr-les form 0new words0 (tht is, new le emes!, while inflection r-les yield /rint forms of the0sme0 word (le eme!. WORD ORMATIO! $ord formtion is  gret reso-rce of &nglish lng-ge. t encompsses different mechnismsthro-gh which le icl -nits cn e creted:1 ompounding: ' comintion of words or prts of them.1 Affi#$tion: 'dding ffi es or s-ffi es to the se.1 on%e&sion: %ing-istic elements chnging their grmmticl ctegory, e.g. the -se of /erss no-ns nd vice versa , etc. COMPOUNDING  Units forming compo-nds cn e solid (2 trademark  3!, hyphented (2  shop-lifting  3! nd open (2  salesmanager  3!. 4ompo-nding in/ol/es ll the grmmr ctegories: no-ns, d/ers, d5ecti/es, etc.1no-n6no-n: 2  jobhunter  3 2 wineglass 3 (hyponym of 2  glass 3!, 2  skinhead  3 1no-n6/er: 2 windfall  3, 2  sunshine 3 1no-n6d/er: 2 environment-friendly 3, 2 consumer-friendly 3 1no-n6d5ecti/e: 2 cost-efficient  3 2  fat-free 3 1/er6 no-n: 2  pass-book  3, 2  pickpocket  3 1/er6/er: 2 make-believe 31preposition6no-n: 2 afternoon 3 2 after-hour  31d5ecti/e6no-n: 2 redskin 3, 2  fast-food  3, 2  software 3.  AFFIXATION   New words cn e creted thro-gh the -se of prefi es (which re plced efore the se! nds-ffi es (which follow the se, th-s chnging the grmmticl ctegory of  word, e.g. from no-nto d5ecti/e: ntion 7 ntionl!. P&efi#esMe$ningP$&t of discou&seE#$mples 1Not, witho-t'd5ecti/e  amoral   dis1Negtion, re/erslNo-n, /er  disagreement, disagree -n1Opposite, re/ersl'd5ecti/e, /er unexpected, unhappy, unfold, unchain ir1Not, witho-t'd5ecti/e  irresponsible, irrelevant  in1Not, witho-t'd5ecti/e  insignificant  mis1$rongly, dlyNo-n, /er  misbehaviour, misadventure, misbehave ml1$rongly, dlyNo-n, /er  maladministration, maltreat   pse-do1Flse, shmNo-n  pseudocode co-nter14o-nter, No-n  counter-revolution, counterpart  in opposition to 8er  counter-balance o/er1& cessi/elyNo-n overcharge 'd5ecti/e  overconfident  Pst prticiple  overestimated  8er  overspend, overprotect  -nder1ns-fficientlyNo-n  undersatement   'd5ecti/e  underdeveloped  Pst prticiple  underestimated  8er  underpay Suffi#esMe$ningT&$nsfo&m$tionE#$mples 1mentStte, ction, the res-lt of 8er to no-n  development reinforcement  1f-lF-ll of, chrcterised yNo-n to 'd5ecti/e  meaningful useful  1le'le to 8er to 'd5ecti/e  acceptable 1ship4ondition, stt-sNo-n to No-n  membershipownership 1less$itho-t, lc#ing No-n to 'd5ecti/e  homelessuseless 1nessStt-s, condition, 9-lity'd5ecti/e to No-n  blindness, sadness 1er'gent performing the ction8er to No-n  publisher, employer  1or   mediator, arbitrator  1ee'ddressee, recipient of the ction8er to No-n  employee,addresseetrainee  1lyMnner, degree'd5ecti/e to d/er  directly, naturally 1ing'cti/ity, the res-lt of s.t.8er to No-n dancing, teaching,learning  8er to 'd5ecti/e disgusting, interesting  1ish*ypicl of No-n to 'd5ecti/e  childish, foolish 'o-t, pproimtion'd5ecti/e to 'd5ecti/e  oldish, tallish 1li#eSimilrity No-n to 'd5ecti/e  childlike, dreamlike 1l Relting to No-n to 'd5ecti/e accidental, classical, logical  1y4hrcterised yNo-n to 'd5ecti/e  bloody, cloudy, sandy   CONVERSION  4on/ertion implies no %$&i$tion in t'e fo&m  (the morphology remins the sme, i.e. the chnge istrnsprent!. &.g. $'%; (no-n! 7 *O $'%; (/er! No-n to 8er<r#e 7 to r#e, mil 7 to mil, tste 7 to tste. n these cses, the pssge is trnsprent.& ception: tle 7 to tle, oo# 7 to oo# 'd5ecti/e to 8erDirty 7 to dirty, empty 7 to empty, e1mil 7 to e1mil s.o.8er to No-n*o cll 7  cll, to commnd 7  commnd, to spy 7  spy'd5ecti/e to No-nDily newspper:  dily creti/e:  creti/e fool:  fool Sometimes, in the pssge, some phonologicl (e.g. R  e  el 7 to re e l! or morphologicl (prcti c e: to prcti s e! chnges my occ-r. (i)liog&$p'ic$l &efe&ences: <'U&R, %-rie =>?@. &nglish $ord Formtion. 4mridge: 4mridge Uni/ersity Press Prefxes  Decide which of the prefixes from the first box can be used to make opposites of the adjectives in the second box:   Verbs to Nouns
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