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Energy in the 21st century
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     An Overview of Coal based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology September 2005 MIT LFEE 2005-002 WP Ola Maurstad Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Energy and the Environment 77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 http://lfee.mit.edu/publications Publication No. LFEE 2005-002 WP  Table of Contents 1   Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).........................................................1  1.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................................1 1.2 Classification of gasifiers....................................................................................................1 1.3 IGCC process description...................................................................................................2 1.4 Performance without CO 2  capture......................................................................................4 1.4.1 Efficiency......................................................................................................................4 1.4.2 Availability...................................................................................................................5 1.4.3 Environmental performance..........................................................................................5 1.4.4 Key IGCC technology issues........................................................................................6 1.4.5 Maturity.........................................................................................................................9 1.5 Performance with CO 2  capture...........................................................................................9 1.5.1 Process description for IGCC with CO 2  capture...........................................................9 1.5.2 Efficiency....................................................................................................................10 1.5.3 Maturity.......................................................................................................................11 1.6 IGCC related research and improvement potential...........................................................11 1.6.1 Research and development areas................................................................................11 1.6.2 Improvement potential................................................................................................15 2   Major IGCC Blocks and Components..........................................................................17  2.1 Gasification.......................................................................................................................17 2.1.1 Classification of gasifiers............................................................................................17 2.1.2 The Shell and GE gasifiers.........................................................................................19 2.2 Gas clean up......................................................................................................................24 2.2.1 Chemical components of raw syngas..........................................................................24 2.2.2 Syngas quenching.......................................................................................................26 2.2.3 Syngas coolers............................................................................................................26 2.2.4 Particle removal..........................................................................................................27 2.2.5 Shift.............................................................................................................................27 2.2.6 Sulfur removal............................................................................................................28 2.2.7 CO 2  capture.................................................................................................................30 2.3 Air separation....................................................................................................................30 2.4 Gas turbines......................................................................................................................31 2.4.1 NO x  emissions from gas turbines................................................................................31 2.4.2 Gas turbines on syngas................................................................................................31 2.4.3 Compressor surge limitation.......................................................................................32 2.4.4 Gas turbine torque limitation......................................................................................33 2.4.5 Turbine inlet temperature and material lifetime.........................................................33 2.4.6 Gas turbines on hydrogen as only fuel........................................................................34 3   IGCC System Issues........................................................................................................35  3.1 Gasification and coal quality............................................................................................35 i  3.2 Integration of the gas turbine and the air separation unit..................................................35 3.2.1 What is meant by integration?....................................................................................35 3.2.2 What are the benefits of integration?..........................................................................36 3.2.3 Why may integration be problematic?........................................................................36 3.2.4 Maximizing power or efficiency?...............................................................................36 3.2.5 Conclusions about maximum power or efficiency.....................................................38 4   References........................................................................................................................40   5   Appendix..........................................................................................................................42  5.1 Lower vs. higher heating value.........................................................................................42 5.2 Energy penalties and efficiency penalty...........................................................................42 5.3 Various losses and net electricity generated.....................................................................43 ii

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