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Life Savers Summary Notes

Summary Notes for the Curriculum subject Life Savers , as well as the Bronze Medallion.
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  Summary Notes DRSABCD    Danger o   Check for danger to yourself, then bystanders, then the victim. o   Remove all hazards from the victim. Avoid moving the victim    Response o   Check for a response. o   COWS    Can you hear me?    Open your eyes    What’s your name?      Squeeze my hand    Send for Help o   Call or ask a bystander to call ‘000’   o   If a bystander has to walk away to call ‘000’ tell them to come back       Airway o   Position the casualty on their back, place one hand pinching their nose and use the other to open their mouth with a pistol grip. Tilt the head slightly and check and clear. o   If the airway is unclear tilt the victim onto their side and use two fingers to scoop out the obstruction and let it drain away.    Breathing o   Look, listen, feel for breathing. Look at the casualty’s chest to see if it’s moving. Listen to their mouth and see if they are inhaling and exhaling. Feel their chest to see if it is expanding and contracting. o   If they are breathing place them into the recovery position. o   If they aren’t breathing being CPR       CPR o   Locate the compression point (centre of the chest) o   Use a wrist lock or one hand locked over the other and place on the compression  point. o   Give 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths. 30:2 no matter who. Compressions at a rate of 100 per minute, compress 1/3 of the chest    Defibrillator o   Attach defibrillator and follow instructions on the screen. Continue CPR until signs of normal breathing and responsiveness return. First Aid First aid is the immediate treatment of an injury before medical professionals arrive to tend to the victim. It is not to remedy the injury, but rather to ease the pain, prevent the worsening of the injury and stop the loss of blood before medical professionals arrive. Main roles of a first aid officer:    Perform first aid    Keep people calm in awaiting arrival of medical professionals    Preserve lise     Ensuring place of employment has sufficient medical equipment    Ensuring medical equipment is of a satisfactory standard Managing Medical Conditions and Injuries    Bleeding o   Signs and symptoms: external bleeding, paleness, sweating, shock, faintness or anxiety o   First Aid technique    DRSABCD    Small cut: Apply antiseptic and band-aid    Heavy: Seek medical help if serious. Do not remove any foreign object in the wound. Apply direct pressure using a pad of material on the would. Avoid contact with blood. Elevate bleeding limb above the level of the heart, then rest and immobilize the limb    PER  –   Pressure, elevation, rest/referral    Shock o   Signs and symptoms: pale, clammy and restless, rapid breathing, fast, weak pulse, dizziness, shallow rapid breathing, confusion and weakness in general.    DRSABCD o   Treatment of shock must be directed at the cause of shock. Bleeding must be stopped, fractures immobilised and burns treated. Lie casualty on the ground with legs raised and protect them from extreme heat or cold. Reassurance and handling are important. Monitor DRSABCD and seek medical attention.    Unconscious casualty o   Follow DRSABCD    Burn injuries o   Signs and symptoms: destruction of superficial layers of skin, damage to superficial  blood vessels, severe pain, blistering, infection and shock. o   DRSABCD    Scald: Cool the burn area with water for up to 20 minutes, remove any thick clothing unless stuck to skin    Flames: Smother the flames with a suitable garment; lay the casualty on the ground. Douse the burned areas with cold water for up to 20 minutes. Remove smouldering clothing and cover the area with a clean, non-stick dressing.    Electric burns: Switch off the power, commence CPR required, cool the burnt area with cold water    Chemical burns: Flood the burn with water for 10  –   15 minutes, remove contaminated clothing and footwear, cover the area with a clean, non-stick dressing.    Asthma o   Signs and symptoms: asthma attacks (wheezing or difficulty breathing), pale, sweating, blueness of lips, earlobes and fingertips, fast heart rate or palpitations o   DRSABCD    If conscious: Ask them what is normally done for an attack, assist them into a comfortable positions, assist in administering medication, if no improvement call an ambulance     If unconscious: If CPR is necessary more force may be required to inflate lungs    Diabetes o   Signs and symptoms: periods of unconsciousness, injection marks, medic alert  bracelet, fatigue.    Low blood sugar (hypo): nausea, confusion, sweating, rapid pulse, shallow  breathing    High blood sugar (hyper): drowsiness, rapid pulse, thirst, increased urination,  breath can have fruity smell o   DRSABCD o   If conscious:    Hyper - -take insulin    Hypo: give sugary substance o   If unconscious: Do not attempt to place sugar or sugary fluids in mouth, seek medical aid, maintain airway, breathing and circulation until help arrives.    Poisoning o   Signs and symptoms: blue lips, skin rashes, difficulty in breathing, diarrhoea, vomiting/nausea, fever, headache, giddiness/drowsiness, double vision, abdominal or chest pain, palpitations, irritability, loss of appetite/bladder control, numbness, muscle twitching, seizures, weakness, loss of consciousness. o   If unconscious: Follow DRSABCD, call 000 for a fire brigade if atmosphere contained with smoke, gas or fumes. o   If conscious: Check for danger, listen and give reassurance but not advice, determine nature of substance if possible and call 13 11 26 for poisons information centre. o   Ingested poisons: Wash corrosive substances off mouth and face with water or wipe off o   Inhaled poisons: Move patient to fresh air and loosen tight clothing o   Absorbed poisons: Protect yourself by wearing gloves, goggles, protective clothing is  possible, ask patient to remove contaminated clothing and place in a plastic bag, flush  patients skin with large amounts of running water. o   For cyanide: Turn patient on side, wash mouth and lips, ,if breathing stops, start CPR    Snake bite o   Signs and symptoms: puncture marks, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache,  breathing difficulties, drowsiness, giddiness, pain or tightness in throat, chest or abdomen, respiratory weakness or arrest o   Check the snake is no longer around causing a threat and the casualty if breathing and responsive. If not, DRSABCD. Call 00 for an ambulance. Calm casualty, get them to lay down. Apply bandage to bite site  –   if on a if on a limb tightly apply a pressure immobilisation bandage starting just above the fingers/toes and as far up the limb as  possible. Immobilise victim  –   apply a splint to immobilise the bitten limb, check circulation in fingers or toes to ensure casualty doesn’t move.    Bee Sting o   Mild reaction: stung by a bee, red welt at sting, small, white spot where the stinger  punctured, slight swelling around string area o   Moderate recation: extreme redness, swelling at the site that gradually enlarges over days.  o   Allergic reaction: skin reactions, difficulty breathing, swelling of tongue and throat, weak, rapid pulse, nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea, dizziness or feinting, loss of consciousness. o   Mild reaction: remove string using the edge of your fingernail, careful not to inject more venom. Apply cold packs or soothing creams. o   If conscious, Inject epinephrine if the person is unable to. Read and follow patient instructions carefully. Call medical help.    Spider Bite o   Red back or funnel web: Copious secretion of saliva, intense local pain which increase and spreads, confusion leading to unconsciousness, small hairs stand on end, muscular twitching, patchy sweating, headache, muscle weakness or spasms, numbness around mouth, copious tears o   Other spider bites: disorientation, sharp pain at bite site, fast pulse, profuse sweating, increases blood pressure, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. o   Follow DRSABCD, lie casualty down, calm and reassure casualty. For red-back spider apply cold pack/compress to area to lessen pain and seek medical aid  promptly. Other spider bites wash with soap and water, apply icepack and seek medical aid if casualty develops sever symptoms.    Epileptic seizure o   Abrupt loss of consciousness followed by jerky movements of the head, trunk, arms and legs for several minutes. Unconsciousness may be prolonged. o   Protect the person from the environment. Remove sharp or hard objects and ensure that the person cannot be harmed. If the seizure occurs in the water, support the head above the water. If the seizure continues for longer than 5 minutes, seek medical aid. After place the person in the recovery position and ensure an open airway. Sports Injury Management    Ricer  –    Reduce swelling and speed up the recovery process   o   REST    Place yourself in a comfortable position      Keep the injured area supports      Avoid using the injured area for at least 48  –   72 hours o   ICE      Apply ice to the injured area for 20 minutes every 2 hours for the first 48  –   72 hours after injury      Do not apply ice directly to the skin, use a wet towel or plastic bag      Applying ice will reduce swelling, pain and bleeding   o   COMPRESSION      Apply a firm wide elastic bandage over the injured area, above and below the injury site      Between ice treatments maintain bandage compression      Applying a bandage will reduce bleeding and swelling and also provides support for the injured area. o   ELEVATION      Raise the injured area above the level of the heart at all time.
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