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Linear Integrated Circuits Lab Manual

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Linear circuit lab manual
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   STUDY OF OP-AMP An operational amplifier or op-amp is a linear integrated circuit that has a very high voltage gain, high input impedance and low output impedance. Op-amp is basically a differential amplifier whose basic function is to amplify the difference between two input signals. Op-amp has five basic terminals, that is, two input terminals, one o/p terminal and two  power supply terminals. Pin2 is called the inverting input terminal and it gives opposite polarity at the output if a signal is applied to it. It produces a phase shift of ! o  between input and output. Pin# is called the non-inverting terminal that amplifies the input signal without inversion, i.e., there is no phase shift or i/p is in phase with o/p. $he op-amp usually amplifies the difference  between the voltages applied to its two input terminals. $wo further terminals pins % and & are  provided for the connection of positive and negative power supply voltages respectively. $erminals  and ' are used for dc offset. $he pin ! mar(ed )* indicates +)o *onnection. Study of op-ampBlock schematic of op-amp 2&#% !  )on Inverting i/p )/*O/p.  Offset )ul ' Offset )ullInverting i/p. - IC ! 0iff amp0iff amp1uffer  level translatorO/pdriver - . 2 .  . $he bloc( diagram of op-amp shows 2 difference amplifiers, a buffer for less loading, a level translator for ad3usting operating point to srcinal level and o/p stage. An ideal op-amp should have the following characteristics4.Infinite bandwidth2.infinite input resistance#.infinite open loop gain&.5ero output resistance'.5ero offset.Op-amps have two operating configurations6 open loop and closed loop. In open loop configuration, it can operate as a switch but gain is uncontrolled. In closed loop configuration, gain can controlled by feed bac( resistance 7f and input resistance 7in.  #$%&o' (I&#A) OP-AMP CI)CUITS Aim' $o design oltage 8ollower, Inverting and )on inverting, 0ifferentiator, Integrator, 9ubtractor, summing amplifier using op-amp and test its performance. Appa*atus *e+ui*ed'S%&oCompo,e,ts)a,e.ua,tity .Op-ampI* %&2.0ual trace supply: -# ; #.8unction <enerator: -; =>5&.7esistors'.*apacitors*7O: -# ; =>5 / 0oltae Follo1e*' Desi,' in ? out @nity <ainB  7in ? C  7f ?  Ci*cuit Dia*am 2 -12VVo+- U 1I C 7 4 1326             7            4 I 11 V / 1    K H z 0 +12V   2/ I,3e*ti, amplifie*' 4Closed (oop Co,fiu*atio,5 Desi,'  A *D ?  o / in ? - 7  f / 7  in 6 Assume 7  in  ? EEEEEE6 <ain ? EEEEEEE6  Ci*cuit Dia*am'6/ &o, i,3e*ti, amplifie*' 4Closed (oop Co,fiu*atio,5 Desi,'  A *D  ?  o  /  in  ?   7  f / 7  in6 Assume 7  in  ? EEEEEE6 <ain ? EEEEEEE6  Ci*cuit Dia*am  # C R    O+ ~ + – –+ 1 0 V764v  0 - 1 0 VR FI C 7 4 123R  i n F . G CRO+ ~ + – –+10V764v 0 -10V23R in F.G ( V )V  i n V  o ( V )t ( s et ( s eI n v e r t i n g a m p  !/ Diffe*e,tiato*' Desi,' 9tep4 9elect f  a  eFual to the highest freFuency of the input signal to be differentiated. $hen assuming a value of *   G  µ 8. *alculate the value of 7  f  .9tep24 *hoose f   b  ? 2 f  a  and calculate the values of 7   and * f   so that 7   *   ? 7  f   * f  .f  a  ? H>5 6 f   b  ? H>5 6*   ? . f6 7  *O=P  ? 7  f   6 7  D  ?  HJ f  a  ? / @2K7  f  *  B6 7  f ? /2K *   f  a 6 f   b  ? / @2K7   *  B67   ? /2K *   f   b6 7   *   ? 7  f * f  6 * f   ? 7*/ 7  f    Ci*cuit Dia*am  & ( V )V  i n V  o ( V )t ( s et ( s eN o n - I n v e r t i n g a m p V i nR LR 1 +12V-12V C f R f  Vo = -Rf C1[dVin/dt] R o mC 1 +- I C 7 4    1326     7    4 0 7  *O=P
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