Linking Words

A comprehensive list of liking words for FCE preparation
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  1 LINKING WORDSLinking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence.Positive Addition and:  It is used to connect words or phrases: “Steve and  his friends are coming to dinner.” “He is waving hisarms and  shouting atus.”  It may be used to connect two independent clauses: “It was raining hard, and  there was a strong wind.” both... and,either…..or,both/either/neither +of:  Affirmative Agreement  eithertoo Negative Agreement  neithereitherboth  We use both, neither, either  when we are talking abouttwo things:“ Both restaurants are very good.”“We accepted neither  offer.” “There were chairs on either  side of the table.”  Two subjects connected by both.....and  take apluralverb. Both + noun + and + noun:“ Both my mother and  my sister are here.” “The research project will take both time and money.”  Do not use both/both...and... innegative sentences. Use neither / neither...nor... : “ Neither  restaurant isexpensive.” “We can go to either  restaurant.”  either/neither of  aresingularif they are not used with or  or nor  .  either  + noun + or  +pluralnoun +pluralverb:“ Either  John or  hisfriendsaregoing to the beach today.”  either  + noun + or  +singularnoun +singularverb: “ Either  John or  Billisgoing to the beach today.”  both,either, neither + of  +the/these/ my/your...+noun: “ Both of  theserestaurants are very good.”“ Neither of  therestaurants we went to was expensive.” “We can go to either of  thoserestaurants.”“ Neither of  thebooks is exactly what I want.” NOTE: ã When we use both/ either/neither  with of  youalwaysneed«the, these,those, my, our, his...»:You cannot say ‘both of restaurants’; you have to say ‘both of the restaurants / both of theserestaurants’ ã Both/either/neither  with of  +subjectorobject pronoun: “If  either of  youtakes a vacation now, wewill not be able to finish the work.” “ Neither of  themcame to the meeting.” too, also, as well, as well as, either:  also , as well  , too are used with a similar meaning:“Bill likes golf and Tom likes golf  too .” “I can also playthe piano.” “She’s got a car as well as a motorbike.”  subject +negativeverb + either  (instead of  too / also ): “Ihaven’tseen him either  .” “He didn’t like thebook; Ididn’t either  .” “She doesn’t smoke. Shedoesn’tdrink either  .”  as well  and too come at theendof the clause whenyou areadding something to a list of things that yougave in the previous sentence: « I’m going to get bread, cheese, tea, and sugar». «Can you get some milk as well  ?» “Bill would enjoy a game and Tom would too .”  But also comes in themiddleof a clause:beforethe verb,afteran auxiliary, modal or to be: “Frankspeaks French. He also speaks German.” “We have also decided to get a new car.”  also /Too / As well  are not used withtwo negativestatements (use either  ) besides, anyway, moreover, what is more, inaddition (to), furthermore: These expressions are used to addinformation to what has already been said.   Anyway / Besides are used at thebeginningof a sentence when you have given one reason for doingsomething and you want to add another: “I hate askingfor a pay rise.  Anyway  , there’s no point.” “I don’treally need a new car. Besides , I can’t afford one.”  2  Besides = in addition to: “The city provides many cultural opportunities. In addition to / Besides anexcellent art museum, it has a fine symphony orchestra.”  Moreover / furthermore / in addition = also. They are used at thebeginningof a sentence to add a moreimportant fact than the one that you gave in the previous sentence: “The city provides many culturalopportunities. It has an excellent art museum. Moreover / Furthermore / In addition , it has a finesymphony orchestra.”  In addition to / besides are used as prepositions. They arefollowed by an object, not a clause: “ Besides doing thecooking I look after the garden” Negative Addition neither...nor..., nor, not only...but also..., neither:  neither...nor / not only  ... but also ... +singularnoun +singularverb: “ Neither  John nor  Billisgoing to thebeach today.” “ Not only  my mother but also mysisterishere.”  neither...nor / not only...butalso... +pluralnoun +pluralverb: “ Neither  John nor  hisfriendsaregoing tothe beach today.” “ Not only  my sister but also myparentsarehere.”  Neither  takes anaffirmativeverb. Contrast while, whereas: They are used to show clearcontrastbetweentwo subjectswithin one sentence. They arefollowed by a clause: “Mary is rich, while John is poor.” “Mary is rich, whereas John is poor.” “ Whereas Mary isrich,John is poor.” “John loves playing outdoors all day, while / whereas Harry likes playing computer games.” but, yet, still, but...anyway, but... still, yet... still:  They show contrast (unexpected result): “It was cold, but  I went swimming anyway.” “It was cold, but  I still  went swimming.” “It was cold, yet  I still  went swimming.”  But  is used to join two words or phrases when the second one has theoppositemeaning: “Mary is rich, but  John ispoor.” Although, even though, though, because:  because is used to expressexpectedresults; even though is used to expressunexpectedresults: “ Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go to bed.” “ Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed.”  even though /although/ though arefollowed by aclauseand acomma.We use asubject+verb: “ Eventhough / Although / Though it was cold, I went swimming.” “ Even though / Although / Though hestudied very hard, he didn’t pass the exam.” “We went out although it was raining.”  even though isstrongerthan although : “He didn’t finish the job, even though he worked all night.”  although can’tbe at the end of a sentence; though can: “  Although he studied very hard, he didn’t passthe exam.” “The room is very small. It’s quite comfortable though .”  We use though to mean ‘however’ at theendofa sentence. Think of  although as «before the fact» and however  as «after the fact». in spite of,despite, despite the fact that...,in spite of the fact that...:  in spite of / despite +ing: “ Despite / In spite of  havingexcellent qualifications,Carol didn’t get the job.”  in spite of / despite +noun:“I went swimming despite / in spite of  thecoldweather.” “I went swimming despite the fact that / in spite of the fact  that theweatherwas cold.”  in spite of / despite +pronoun:“ Despite / In spite of  herexcellent qualifications , Carol didn’t get the job.”  in spite of = despiteon the other hand: Use thisat the beginning of a sentencewhen you have just mentioned one side of anargument and you are going to mention theoppositeside: “Mary is rich. John, on the other hand  , ispoor. ”“ Nuclear power is relatively cheap. On the other hand  , you could argue thatit’s not safe.” however, nevertheless, nonetheless:  3  However  and nevertheless linkcontrasting ideas in two different sentences: “It was cold. Nevertheless , Iwent swimming.” “I like him very much. However / Nevertheless , we are very different.” Giving Examples for example,for instance: These expressions introduce particular examples to illustrate what has been said:“There are many interesting places to visit in the city. Forexample , the botanical garden has numerous displaysof plants from all over the world.”“There are many interesting places to visit in the city. The art museum,  for instance , has an excellent collection of modern paintings.”  for example = for instance  e.g. = for example/e.g. = exempli gratia(Latin)/e.g.–AmE/eg-BrE such as, like, especially, in particular:  such as = for example : “I prefer to wear casual clothes, such as  jeans and a sweatshirt.” “Some countries, such as Brazil and Canada, arebig.” Cause/ Reason asand since:  as/ since = because , and they canbegin a sentence. They arefollowed by a clause:“ Since Monday is aholiday, we don’t have to go to work.” “ Since you are a good cook and I’m not, you should cook thedinner.” “  As it was a public holiday, all the shops were shut.” “  As they live near us, we see them quiteoften.” because (of), due to:  because introduces anadverb clause; it isfollowed by a subject and verb: “ Because the weather was cold,we stayed home.”  becauseof / due to arephrasal prepositions; they arefollowed by a noun object:“ Due to the coldweather, we stayed home.”“ Because of  the cold weather, we stayed home.”“We stayed home becauseof / due to the cold weather.”  because of the fact that / Due tothe fact that  are followed by asubject and verb:“ Due to the factthat  the weather was cold, we stayed home.” now that:  now that = because now :“ Now that  the semester is over( =because the semester is now over) , I’mgoing to rest a few days and thentake a trip.”  now that  is used forpresent causesof present or future situations: “Jack lost his job. Now that  he’sunemployed, he can’t pay his bills.” for this reason, asa result (of):  as a result ofsomething= because ofsomething  Use as a result of  to saywhat madesomething happen:“Hundreds of people lost their homes as a result of  the war.”“John died as the result of  a heart attack.”  Use the simple/good/obviousreason (that) to explainwhysomething happened:“We can’t take you all,for thesimple reason that  there isn’t enough room in the car.” Condition if /whether, whether or not,even if = even though:  Whether or not expresses the idea that neitherthis condition nor that condition matters; the result willbe the same. Even if  gives theidea that a particular condition does not matter. The result will not change:“I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not  it is cold. (or: whether  it is cold or not  )” “I’ve decidedto go swimming tomorrow. Even if  the weather is cold. I’m going to go swimming.” “You must gotomorrow if  you are ready.” “You must go tomorrow even if  you aren’t ready.” in case, in case of,in the event that:  in case / in the event that  express the idea thatsomething probably won’t happen, but it might. It means«if by chance this should happen»:“We bought some food in case Tom came.”  4  In case is followed by apresent /past tense or should.(do not use willafter in case):“I’ll be at my uncle’shouse in case you(should)need to reach me.” “ In the event that  you(should)need to reach me, I’ll be atmy uncle’s house.” “I always slept by the phone in case herangduring the night. = I always slept by thephone because (I knew) he might ring during the night.”  In case of...= if there is... : “ In case of  fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. = if there is afire.” only if,unless:  unless = if...not = except if: “Don’t tell Sue what I said unless she asks you.”(= except if she asks you)“I’llgo swimmingtomorrow if it isn’t cold.”  unless +affirmative verb =if  +negative:“Unless you start at once you’ll be late = If you don’t start at onceyou’ll be late.”  We often use unless inwarnings: “We’ll be late unless we hurry.” Otherwise,or else:  Otherwise expresses the idea « if the opposite is true, then there will be a certain result »: “Ialways eatbreakfast. Otherwise , I get hungry during class.”  Or else and Otherwise have the same meaning: “Take your umbrella. Otherwise , you’ll get wet.” “Takeyour umbrella, or (else) you’ll get wet.” provided(that) / providing (that), as /so long as,on condition (that):  Provided(that) can replace ifwhen there is a strong idea of limitation or restriction (mainly used withpermission): “ Provided you pay me back byFriday, I’ll lend you the money.” “You can camp here provided you leave no mess.”  Provided / Providing -only if a particular thing happens or is done: “It’s a lot easier to get good marks ona short-answer question, providing you do it well.”  As / so longas is used before saying the conditionsthatwill makesomething else happen or be true: “Myparents don’t care what job I do as long as I’m happy.”  On condition (that): “ They spoke on condition that their names would not be used in the article.” Like /as if / as though:  Like is followedby a noun object or a clause: “It looks like rain.” “It looks like it is going to rain.”  As if /as though are followed by a clause. Usually the idea following as if/ as though is «untrue». In thiscase, verb usage is similar tothat in conditional sentence: “It looks as if it is going to rain.” “It looks asthough it is going to rain.” Purpose in order to, in order that, so that,in case:  In order to is used to express purpose, it answers the question «Why?». It is followed by a verb: “I turnedoff the TV in order to enable my roommate to study in peace and quiet.” “He came here in order to studyEnglish.”  So that also expresses purpose. It has the same meaning as in order to . So that is often used instead of  inorder to when the idea of ability is being expressed: “I turned off the TV so (that) my roommate couldstudy in peace and quiet.”  Canis used in the adverb clause for a present/future meaning:“ So that Icanbuy = in order to be able tobuy.”: “I’m going to cash a check so that Icanbuy my textbooks.”  Couldis usedafter so that in past sentences:“I turned off the TV in order that my roommatecouldstudyin peace and quiet.” In order that = so that :“I cashed a check so that I could buy my textbooks.” in case +present tense= because this may happen/ because this will happen: “I don’t let him climb trees in case hetearshis trousers.” “I carry a spare wheel in case Ihavea puncture.”  in case +past tense= because this might happen/because this would happen: “I always kept candles inthe house in case therewasa power cut.”
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