Malaysia Standards Referencing and School Assessment (Adj)

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  Jim Tognolini International Experience on Standards Referenced Assessment in the Context of School Based Assessment  Why are standards important?   Political and media issues centre around questions such as: are educational standards improving or falling?   Qualifications frameworks are being developed around standards e.g. European Framework for Lifelong Learning   They enable the comparisons of education systems e.g. PISA and TIMSS   Empower students and teachers in the learning process to understand what is required of them. Oxford University Centre for Educational  Assessment.  What are Standards? Standards describe what it is that students should be able to know and do. The US New Standards Project defines „standards‟ as: “what students should know and be able to do”. This definition is also used by the American Foundation of Teachers (see AFT, 1999). Victoria‟s CSF, on the other hand, uses „standards‟ as a synonym for „learning outcomes‟ which are described as: “benchmarks or standards against which student achievement can be measured”.   Oxford University Centre for Educational  Assessment.  Types of Standards Commonly a distinction is made between curriculum  standards and performance  standards. Curriculum standards   “are the knowledge, skills and understanding expected to be learned by students as a result of studying a course”; while, Performance standards   are defined as the “levels of achievement of the knowledge, skills and understanding”   Oxford University Centre for Educational  Assessment.
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