Manjung 4 Malaysia Ultra Supercritical Coal Plant Editorial

Power plant Project in Malaysia
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  nited kingdom Malaysia  brazil pakistan sa UAE australia indonesia turkey chinaorocco mexico philippines japan india italy    S PECIAL  P ROJECT C OLLECTION Manjung 4  Special Project Report: Manjung 4, Malaysia With the 1000 MW Manjung 4 project on schedule, Malaysia looks set to be the first country in Southeast Asia to not only boast an ultra-supercritical power station, but one where both the boiler and the steam turbine are being manufactured in Asia. Manjung 4: An ultra-supercritical first in Southeast Asia 1234567851236478 STF100 steam turbineGIGATOP turbogeneratorTwo-pass boilerHP/LP heatersFeedwater tankCondenserBus ductCoal silos  he Manjung 4 power station, which is now under construction in Malaysia, is expected to be the first ultra-supercritical power plant in Southeast Asia when it is completed in 2015. The 1000 MW coal fired station is being constructed under a turnkey contract by a consortium led by the srcinal equipment manufacturer Alstom, in partnership with China Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CMC). The contract was signed with TNB Janamanjung Sdn Bhd, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tenaga Nasional Bhd, the large state-owned utility. According to Alstom, the total contract is worth around €1 billion ($1.2 billion), of which its share is €650 million.Manjung 4 will be built on the same site as an existing power station, the three-unit, 2100 MW Manjung power plant, which was also constructed by Alstom and began delivering power in 2003. Located in the Manjung municipality the plant is built on a reclaimed island off the western coast of the state of Perak, around 10 km south of Lumut and 288 km north of Kuala Lumpur. The island is also home to the Lekir coal terminal, where coal to power the existing Manjung plant is imported. This terminal will also supply the fuel for Manjung 4.Alstom already has a strong presence in Malaysia, as a result of Manjung and other power plants it has built there, and this allowed the contract for Manjung 4 to be finalised extremely quickly. From the submission of bids in December 2010 to acceptance and signing in March 2011, the process was proof of TNB’s requirement for additional capacity to meet rising demand and at the same as time reduce its dependence on natural gas, which has become the most important source of power in Malaysia. An evolving generation mix The Malaysian government has for several years maintained a five-fuel policy for power generation in order to avoid excessive reliance on a single fuel. In spite of this, its generation mix is dominated by fossil fuels with gas taking 45 per cent of the total generation in 2011 and coal 44 per cent (see Table 1). Together with oil and distillates, these accounted for more than 94 per cent of all power generation. Only hydropower, with 5.8 per cent of the total in 2011, provided any alternative, with the contribution from other renewable energy sources less than 1 per cent.Table 1, which contains these figures, also shows the breakdown for 2010. The main difference between the two years is the sharp fall in the share of generation taken by natural gas – 54 per cent in 2010, which is nine percentage points higher than in 2011 – and a rise in the contribution from other fossil fuels. The fall in the contribution from natural gas was the result of tightening supplies, reinforcing the need for Malaysia to expand its generating capacity from other sources to avoid power supplies coming under pressure.Natural gas for power generation in Malaysia is provided by the national gas company Petronas. Production from the company’s fields has been declining since 2006 and recently gas for the power sector has been curtailed, as a result Petronas says of maintenance and upgrading of offshore facilities. The unscheduled reduction in the use of gas in 2011 prefigures a planned fall in the proportion of power generated from natural gas in the future (see Table 1). By 2020, its share of generation is scheduled to fall to 47.8 per cent and by 2030 to 41 per cent. Meanwhile coal use will rise to over 48 per cent of the total by 2020, based on recently published figures. Beyond that, nuclear power is also planned to take a share of the mix, with coal’s proportion then falling. However as the 2011 mix suggests natural gas curtailment may be forcing the shift to other fuels more quickly than has been planned.The government is also trying to promote alternative types of renewable generation including solar photovoltaics and biomass, but over the short term the main alternative to gas remains coal. However Malaysia has no coal reserves of its own so all the coal it uses, 20 million tonnes each year according to TNB in its 2011 annual report, is imported. This means that costs depend on the market price for coal, which almost tripled between 2004 and 2011, from $34/tonne to $107/tonne. Prices, however, have been falling since May 2011, which has eased the situation slightly.Meanwhile demand in Malaysia is rising steadily as the economy grows. GDP growth T Special Project Report: Manjung 4, Malaysia General view of Manjung 4 under construction: boiler steel structure in progress; and turbine hall foundation in the foreground, future coal yard on the left of the picture, and future ash pond on the right source: Alstom  in 2010 was 7.1 per cent and 5.1 per cent in 2011, following a contraction of 1.6 per cent in 2009. Its estimated growth in 2012 is forecast to be 4.4 per cent, according to Global Finance, still strong in spite of global economic difficulties. Table 2 shows peak electricity demand between 2005 and 2011 in Peninsular Malaysia. As these figures demonstrate, demand has risen throughout this period. The peak in 2011 (15,476 MW) represented a 2.7 per cent increase over 2010.Although margins in Malaysia appear generous - installed capacity in Peninsular Malaysia in 2011 was 21,794 MW - this depends upon the availability of fuel, as TNB found out early in 2011 when it had to import power from Singapore when gas supplies were restricted. Meanwhile the continuous upward trend in demand, in spite of the global economic recession, means that additional capacity is needed if adequate margins are to be maintained under all circumstances. With pressure on the gas supplies and gas prices remaining uncertain, the government has opted to invest in further coal fired generation. Manjung 4, with its ultra-supercritical boiler is a sign of this. Coal capacity will expand further with the more recently contracted Tanjung Bin power plant, an ultra-supercritical coal fired power station. This second 1000 MW facility will also be supplied by Alstom in partnership with Mudajaya and Shin Eversendai under a contract with a subsidiary of Malakoff Corporation Bhd. The Tanjung Bin power station is due to enter service in 2016, one year after Manjung 4. Background to Manjung 4 project The Alstom consortium’s client in the Manjung 4 project is a wholly-owned subsidiary of TNB, the state-owned utility and largest electricity company in the country, with generation, transmission and distribution arms serving Peninsular Malaysia. TNB’s generation division operated a capacity of 9110 MW in 2011, comprising 7199 MW of thermal power and 1911 MW of hydropower. This represented 41.8 per cent of the total installed capacity in the peninsula (21,794 MW). TNB is also the major shareholder (60 per cent) in Kapar Energy Ventures Bhd, which operates the Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz power station. This plant, with a mixture of thermal steam and gas turbine units, is responsible for a further 2420 MW of capacity.In recent years, TNB’s output has been affected by the tight gas supply in Malaysia. Curtailment by Petronas led to a reduction in natural gas’ share of generation in 2011 to 47.5 per cent of the company’s total generation capacity - down from 53.1 per cent in 2010. Meanwhile TNB’s overall share of generation in 2011 fell to 38 per cent from 42 per cent in 2010 because of a series of unplanned outages. Total generation by TNB in the 2010–11 financial year was 37,859 GWh. Most of this electricity was generated at three power plants: Manjung (12,334 GWh), Tuanku Ja’afar, Port Dickson (7979 GWh) and the Sultan Ismail, Paka (5183 GWh).The Manjung power station is owned by TNB Janamanjung. The company was established back in 1996 to develop a 2100 MW coal fired power plant on the island at Manjung.An engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for that project was awarded to a consortium comprising Alstom and Peremba Construction Bhd, a local company. This power station was also built in order to reduce the dependence on natural gas, and a coastal site, the reclaimed island called Teluk Penchalang, was chosen in order to allow easy access for imported coal. The same company, TNB Janamanjung, is the client for the new ultra-supercritical Manjung 4 plant.On 23 August 2010, the Malaysian government awarded TNB the contact to build a 1000 MW coal fired power plant. After an extremely short bidding process, with bids submitted in December 2010, the EPC contract for the Manjung 4 project was awarded by TNB Janamanjung to the consortium of Alstom and CMC. Site work began on 29 June 2011, with commercial operation scheduled to begin on 31 March 2015.From Alstom’s perspective, the tendering process proceeded very rapidly and the contract was signed without any pre-engineering so that the project team had to be established immediately. That team is now actively building the plant, where boiler construction began in April 2012, only 12 months after the Notice to Proceed. Alstom has a strong relationship with TNB, having supplied a large part of the company’s fossil fuel generating capacity and this was a major factor that allowed both sides to move quickly, and with confidence, according to Jean-Marc Jaillet, project director for Fuel2010201120202030  Natural gas54.2%45.1%47.8%41.0%Coal40.2%44.0%48.3%32.1% Oil 0.2%2.6%00Distillate0.3%2.5%00Hydropower5.1%5.8%3.9%4.6%Nuclear00022.3% Table 1: Generation mix in Malaysia   source: TNB Annual Report, 2011; Alstom Special Project Report: Manjung 4, Malaysia
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