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   Proceedings Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 3 - 7 October 2005    2005 by CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, Italy   LOW-TECH OPTIONS FOR CHICKEN MANURE TREATMENT AND APPLICATION POSSIBILITIES IN AGRICULTURE   H. ROEPER, S. KHAN, I. KOERNER AND R. STEGMANN  Department of Waste Management, Hamburg University of Technology TUHH,  Harburger Schlossstrasse 36, 21079 Hamburg, Germany SUMMARY: Problems related to chicken manure disposal are a relevant issue in many countries of Asia due to the constantly increasing demand for chicken products. An application without treatment or non-appropriate disposal can become risky for environment and humans. Simple treatment techniques which convert the manure into valuable fertilizer are needed. A low-tech option is currently under development at Hamburg University of Technology. It is a simple approach for the production of manure pellets within a small vessel which is equipped with stirrers. By adjusting the parameters moisture content, rotation speed, aeration and temperature,  pellets of almost spherical shape can be formed within hours. Pelletising should be combined with a further treatment step including drying and hygienising. In this work pellet properties were analysed with respect to important application parameters for a fertilizer such as nutrient content. Distribution properties were characterised by a strength test and by analysing the shape of the pellets. The work was carried out in frame of the ASIA-PRO-ECO project “CHIMATRA”, financed by the European Union and the City of Hamburg. 1. INTRODUCTION Problems related to chicken manure disposal are a relevant issue in many countries of Asia due to the constantly increasing demand for chicken products. The poultry population in result is increasing constantly. In West-Malaysia the chicken population increased by a third within the years 2000 to 2001 (Anonymous 2004). The problem coming along with the poultry production is the manure that needs to be taken care of. A non-appropriate treatment or disposal can become risky for environment and humans; for instance it can support the spread of diseases and may pollute soil and groundwater. Currently no legislation regarding chicken breeding is in force and small-scale manure treatment systems are needed to reduce the odour nuisance and the hygienical risk that is generated from chicken manure. Furthermore there is a rising demand on fertilizer that is needed on various plantations so that organic and inorganic fertilizers are imported into Asia. To solve this problem simple treatment techniques which convert the manure into valuable fertilizer are needed.  Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium   2. MANURE GENERATION AND POTENTIAL AS A FERTILIZER 2.1 Manure generation in Asia In Asian countries a high number of small-scale chicken farms exist without controlled husbandry and treatment options for the manure. In general the size of chicken farms ranges from 1000 to more than a million birds per farm (Glenn, 1998). Most common in Asian countries are small farms with less than 10.000 birds. Figure 1 shows the allocation of farms representative for West Malaysia. With increasing size, better and more modern logistics and housing systems are being used on the farms. Modern farms are also equipped with biosecurity systems to avoid the infection with potential bird diseases. Along with the increasing production of chicken, the amount of chicken excrements is also rising. The daily manure production of a laying hen can be estimated with 138g/day (25% dry substance) and 90 g/day (40% dry substance) of a broiler (Burton & Turner, 2003). Manure can  be classified in solid, slurry and wastewater (Haga, 2001). Chicken manure is commonly collected in a solid form and also mixed with bedding material and other residues from the chicken production. 2.2 Value added potential of chicken manure All kinds of manure but especially chicken manure are rich in nutrients. A composition for chicken manure based on a survey giving average values for Europe is given in table 1. The numbers in literature differ depending on which country the manure has been sampled. In addition other nutrient values can be found for potassium, magnesium and sulphur as well as other micronutrients. Figure 1. Number and size of chicken farms in Pedang State, Malaysia (Faculty of Environmental Studies, UPM, 2004)  Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium  Table 1. Nutrient composition of poultry manure (Burton & Turner, 2003, modified) Total N Ammonia N Phosphorus P 2 O 5  Layers (solid manure) 2,00% DS 0,91% DS 1,38% DS Broilers (solid manure) 1,57% DS 0,53% DS 1,23% DS The amount of manure currently applied to crop land varies considerably between regions and countries. Poultry manure is primarily spread to arable crops (Burton and Turner, 2003). Direct land application of untreated manure is the most common utilization option, but it can result in environmental pollution of waters, odour nuisance and hygienic problems which can support the spread of diseases (Glenn 1998). The following treatment methods relevant for land application of poultry manure are currently being used: drying, composting, anaerobic digestion, combustion, pasteurization and pelletizing. 1.3 Proposed concept for chicken manure treatment  Even though there are many market available treatment options for chicken manure, there is a need for a reliable low tech option since the number of chicken grown on small scale farms is steadily increasing. This is especially valid for the Asian market due to the increasing demand for organic fertilizers. The demanded technology should transform the manure into a valuable fertilizer product keeping the existing nutrients within the product. The following parameters are desired: ã   suitable for storing and transporting ã   common application on farmland need to be possible with already existing equipment ã   odour reduction ã   cost efficiency The proposed concept is a simple approach for the production of pellets in a drum equipped with stirrers to form pellets. By adjusting the parameters moisture content, rotation speed, aeration and temperature, pellets of almost spherical shape can be formed within hours. A further treatment step includes drying and hygienising of the pellets. The basic functional efficiency of the pelletizing equipment has already been determined by Trevino-Garza (2003). This work focuses on optimisation aspects of the srcinal process and additional aspects relevant to land application. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS   2.1 Substrate characteristics  The chicken manure has been collected from a farm with 11.000 laying hens (Hühnerhof Schöneke, Germany). The building is equipped with a belt collector that is clearing the barns  permanently and the manure is put on a pile afterwards. Since also bedding material is being used at site, straw can be found within the manure as well as feathers. Samples for experiments have been taken out of the pile from different depths and mixed to assure a representative composition. The mixture has been stored in a sealed bin afterwards. The moisture content of the manure was in between 47.6% to 65.0% at the beginning of the experiments.  Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium   2.2 Experimental setup The device used for pelletizing the chicken manure consists of a cylindrical glass drum with a total volume of 5.4 litres. It is equipped with stirrers to turn the manure. Three drums are attached to one engine which can be run at variable speed. Additionally aeration of the drums is  possible through an inlet for fresh air and an outlet for exhaust air. A larger sealed opening allows the addition of amendments such as water, woodchips or lime. Figure 3 shows the complete experimental setup. In Figure 4 the equipped workbench is being displayed. Figure 3. Experimental Setup of a pelletizing drum equipped with stirrers Figure 4. Laboratory setup of the complete workbench including three drums on one engine
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