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Marshall Stability and Flow

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STP 204-11 Standard Test Procedures Manual 1. Section: Subject: ASPHALT MIXES MARSHALL STABILITY AND FLOW SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test This method covers the measurement of resistance to plastic flow of cylindrical specimens of asphalt mixtures loaded on the lateral surface by means of the Marshall apparatus. This method is for use with mixtures containing asphalt cement, asphalt cutback, and aggregate up to 25.4 mm maximum size. 1.2. Application of Test The testing section of this met
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   STP 204-11  Standard Test Section : ASPHALT MIXES   Procedures Manual Subject : MARSHALL STABILITY AND FLOW   Date: 1992 04 02 Page 1 of 5 1.   SCOPE1.1.   Description of Test This method covers the measurement of resistance to plastic flow of cylindrical specimensof asphalt mixtures loaded on the lateral surface by means of the Marshall apparatus. Thismethod is for use with mixtures containing asphalt cement, asphalt cutback, and aggregateup to 25.4 mm maximum size. 1.2.   Application of Test The testing section of this method can also be used to obtain maximum load and flow forasphalt concrete specimens cored from pavements or prepared by STP 204-8, Preparationof Marshall Compaction Specimens. 1.3.   Units of Measure Stability is measured in Newtons. Flow is measured in mm. 2.   APPARATUS AND MATERIALS2.1.   Equipment Required Breaking Head - the breaking head shall consist of upper and lower cylindrical segmentsor test heads having an inside radius of curvature of 50.8 mm accurately machined. Thelower segment shall be mounted on a base having two perpendicular guide rods or postsextending upward. Guide sleeves in the upper segment shall be in such a position as todirect the two segments together without appreciable binding or lose motion on the guiderods.Loading Jack - the loading jack shall consist of a screw jack mounted in a testing frameand shall produce a uniform vertical movement of 50.8 mm/minute. An electric motormay be attached to the jacking mechanism.Ring Dynamometer Assembly or Electronic Equivalent - one ring dynamometer of 2267kg capacity and sensitivity of 4.536 kg up to 453.6 kg and 11.34 kg between 453.6 and2267 kg shall be equipped with a micrometer dial. The micrometer dial shall begraduated in 0.0025 mm. Upper and lower ring dynamometer attachments are required    Standard Test Procedures Manual S TP 204-11   Section :  Subject :  ASPHALT MIXES MARSHALL STABILITY AND FLOW   Page: 2 of 5 Date: 1992 04 02for fastening the ring dynamometer to the testing frame and transmitting the load to thebreaking head.Flowmeter - the flowmeter shall consist of a guide sleeve and a gauge. The activating pinof the gauge shall slide inside the guide sleeve with a slight amount of frictionalresistance. The guide sleeve shall slide freely over the guide rod of the breaking head.The flowmeter gauge shall be adjusted to zero when placed in position on the breakinghead when each individual test specimen is inserted between the breaking head segments.Water Bath - the water bath shall be at least 152 mm deep and shall be thermostatically controlled so as to maintain the bath at 60 ± 1 o  C. The tank shall have a perforated falsebottom or be equipped with a shelf for supporting specimens 51 mm above the bottom of the bath.Air Bath - the air bath for asphalt cutback mixtures shall be thermostatically controlledand shall maintain the air temperature at 25 ± 1 o  C. 2.2.   Materials Required Samples may include cored specimens, field or lab prepared specimens. 2.3.   Sample to be Tested Density of the specimen is required to obtain the volume for a correlation ratio. Densitycan be determined as outlined in STP 204-21, DENSITY AND VOIDCHARACTERISTICS. 3.   PROCEDURE3.1.   Equipment Preparation Thoroughly clean the guide rods and the inside surfaces of the test heads prior to makingthe test, and lubricate the guide rods so that the upper test head slides freely over them. 3.2.   Sample Preparation Samples will be prepared in accordance with STP 204-8, Preparation of MarshallCompaction Specimens or collected in accordance with STP 204-5, Asphalt ConcreteSamples Obtained by Coring.    Standard Test Procedures Manual S TP 204-11   Section :  Subject :   ASPHALT MIXES MARSHALL STABILITY AND FLOW   Date: 1992 04 02 Page: 3 of 5 3.3.   Test Procedure Bring the specimens prepared with asphalt cement to the specified temperature by immersing in a water bath 30 minutes. Maintain the bath or oven temperature at 60 ± 1 o C for asphalt cement specimens. Bring the specimens prepared with asphalt cutback tothe specified temperature by placing them in the air bath for a minimum of 2 hours.Maintain the air bath temperature at 25 ± 1 o  C.The testing head temperature shall be maintained between 20 to 38 o  C. Remove thespecimen from the water bath, oven or air bath and place in the lower segment at thebreaking head. Place the upper segment of the breaking head on the specimen and placethe complete assembly in position on the testing machine. Place the flowmeter, whereused, in position over one of the guide rods and adjust the flowmeter to zero whileholding the sleeve firmly against the upper segment of the breaking head. Hold theflowmeter sleeve firmly against the upper segment of the breaking head while the testload is being applied. Apply the load to the specimen by means of the constant rate of movement of the load jack or testing machine head of 50.8 mm/minute until themaximum load is reached and the load decreases as indicated by the dial. Record themaximum load noted on the testing machine or converted from the maximum micrometerdial reading. Release the flowmeter sleeve or note the micrometer dial reading, whereused, the instant the maximum load begins to decrease. Note and record the indicatedflow value or equivalent units in mm if a micrometer dial is used to measure the flow.The elapsed time for the test from removal of the test specimen from the water bath to themaximum load determinations shall not exceed 30 seconds. 4.   RESULTS & CALCULATIONS4.1.   Collection of Test Results For specimens other than 63.5 mm in thickness correct the load by using the propermultiplying factor from Table 1.The reports shall include the following information:a)Type of sample tested (lab sample or pavement core specimen). For corespecimens the height of each test specimen in mm shall be reported.b)Average maximum load in newtons, corrected when required.c)Average flow value in millimetres.d)Test temperature    Standard Test Procedures Manual S TP 204-11   Section :  Subject :  ASPHALT MIXES MARSHALL STABILITY AND FLOW   Page: 4 of 5 Date: 1992 04 02 TABLE 1  - Stability Correlation Ratios* Volume of Specimen Thickness of Specimen Correlation Ratio (cm 3 ) (mm)200 to 21325.45.56214 to 22527.05.00225 to 23728.64.55238 to 25030.24.17251 to 26431.83.85265 to 27633.33.57277 to 28934.93.33290 to 30136.53.03302 to 31638.12.78317 to 32839.72.50329 to 34041.32.27341 to 35342.92.08354 to 36744.41.92368 to 37946.01.79380 to 39247.61.67393 to 40549.21.56406 to 42050.81.47421 to 43152.41.39432 to 44354.01.32444 to 45655.61.25457 to 47057.21.19471 to 48258.71.14483 to 49560.31.09496 to 50861.91.04509 to 52263.51.00523 to 53564.00.96536 to 54665.10.93547 to 55966.70.89560 to 57368.30.86574 to 58571.40.83586 to 59873.00.81599 to 61074.60.78611 to 62576.20.76*The measured stability of a specimen multiplied by the ratio for the thickness of thespecimen equals the corrected stability for a 63.5 mm specimen.
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