Material Selection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Material Selection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
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  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 34-40 © IAEME   34   MATERIAL SELECTION FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE AKSHAY BALACHANDRAN 1 , DIVYESH KARELIA 2 , Dr. JAYARAMULU CHALLA 3   1,2 UG Students , Department of Production Engineering, 3 Professor, Department of Production Engineering, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering, FrAgnel Ashram, Bandstand, Bandra (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, Pin Code: 400 050 ABSTRACT This paper explains and details about a brief study and comparison of the various available engineering and structural materials which is the key requirement for the optimum functioning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) known as drone and referred to as Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) of 'Advanced class' of this competition. The major requirements that these materials on UAVs with respect to physical and mechanical properties must fulfill are: resistance to buckling, high ultimate tensile strength, less inflammable, high strength to weight ratio, low thermal gradient, resistance to noise and vibration, resistance against deteriorative fuels and chemicals, low corrosion and oxidation, ease of shape ability, fastening and joining, high fatigue and endurance limit. In order to fulfill these requirements, our system comprised of these engineering materials: carbon fiber, fiber plastic, Balsa, Thermocol, rubber, Aluminium alloy, alloy steel, thin plywood. The system performed well and stood true on all its expectations. There are off-the-shelf materials available for their respective tasks but they lack on one parameter or other.Additionally, their cost is prohibitive at times. The material selection, explained in this paper, is comprehensive, inexpensive and rugged and can be implemented on any kind of UAV vehicle. Keywords : Aero, High Strength to Weight Ratio, Balsa, Carbon Fiber, Fiber Plastics. I. INTRODUCTION SAE International is a global association of more than 138,000 engineers and related technical experts in the aerospace, automotive and commercial-vehicle industries. SAE International's core competencies are life-long learning and voluntary consensus standards development. To nurture and encourage talent in the field of aviation, SAE International conducts   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 34-40 © IAEME: Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.5377 (Calculated by GISI)   IJMET   © I A E M E    International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 34-40 © IAEME   35   ‘Aero Design Series’ competition annually in the USA. The competition involves student teams from all over the world designing and fabricating UAVs. Depending on the design and event objectives, there are three classes in this competition: Micro, Regular and Advanced Class. The objective of the Advanced Class, of the 2013 edition of SAE Aero Design Series, was to design the most efficient aircraft capable of accurately dropping a three pound (3 lb) humanitarian aid package from a minimum of 100ft off the ground. Though the class was mostly focused on mission success, students were needed to perform trade studies to optimize empty weight and anticipate repair build-up weight while meeting several aircraft design requirements. The Advanced Class also involved an array oftasks to be accomplished to win high flight points, primary of which was dropping a three pound (3 lb) humanitarian aid package from a minimum of 100ft off the ground. The objectives were: 1. Team must be able to provide high strength and stability to the UAV at high altitudes and speeds. 2. Team must be able to resist and balance the forces acting dynamically on the body of the UAV. 3. Team should be able to select the right materials at the right place with the right properties. Figure 1: Stress analysis An important requirement of the UAV was that it should have a high precision and accuracy during flight. For this it was necessary to have high strength to weight ratio, the key requirement. The design should be aerodynamic for which material used should be easily formable or shapeable. A Rigid frame for containing the engine and other major functional features and provide rigidity in motion.Part specific functions. For example: wings, fuselage, landing gear, etc. The entire body should weigh less so as to minimise the fuel consumption. Furthermore, it’s evident from the design objectives that a sturdy and rugged design was a necessity so as to build a stable, stiff and strong body which could assist the pilot on the base station for precise cargo expulsion. This summarizes the DAS requirements for Advanced class event of ‘SAE Aero Design Series 2013’ and to satisfy the same, this paper proposes a comprehensive study of engineering materials suitable for UAV:  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 34-40 © IAEME   36   II. MATERIAL SELECTION Figure 2: Material study 1. Wood (Balsa) A light weight and strong material, but splinters and requires a lot of maintenance and less durability. It is stronger for its weight than any other material except for certain alloy steels.Timber is readily worked by hand, using simple tools and is therefore far cheaper to use than metal. Timber from deciduous trees is said to be 'hardwood'. It can be seen, therefore, that the term 'softwood' and 'hardwood' apply to the family or type of tree and do not necessarily indicate the density of the wood. That is why balsa, the lightest and most fragile of woods, is classed as a hardwood. BALSA, although very soft and low in strength properties, is a hardwood, which grows in CentralAmerica. It is the lightest timber in general use and is pinkish white to pale brown in colour. Dueto its porosity, if it is badly stored or inadequately protected in use, it very readily deteriorates ifexposed to moisture. Its principal uses in aircraft construction are the making of fairings, filletsand light, low density contour blocks. 2. Carbon fiber Carbon fiber (also commonly called graphite) has special properties making it ideal for applications ranging from aerospace to automobiles. When combined with resin to form a composite, it produces parts that are extremely light and rigid. Carbon parts are lighter and stronger than their metal counterparts. For that reason, carbon fiber is being used extensively in the aerospace industry. High-end vehicles are incorporating carbon to make one piece vehicle frames. Perhaps the biggest user of carbon fiber is the aircraft industry, both commercial and military. Here are the biggest users of carbon fiber. Carbon fibre is awesome. It's light, incredibly strong and you can make almost anything out of it, including planes like the fancy new 787 Dreamliner. What it's not great at, though, is taking lightning strikes, and apparently planes get hit by lightning all the time. Scarily, carbon fibre is literally shredded by the strike.Carbon fiber construction offers exceptional strength and stiffness at a lower density than traditional metal materials. The high temperature epoxy resins with which the fibers are cured are highly resistant to water, fuel, anti-freeze, and solvents which might cause wear or deterioration and they can be protected from ultraviolet radiation using the same paint finishes used on metal airplane components. 3. Thermocol (Polystyrene) Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical.It is a very inexpensive resin per unit weight. It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively low melting point.[4] Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its production being several billion kilograms per year.Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough, closed-cell foam. It is usually white and made of pre-expanded polystyrene beads.Due to its technical properties such as low weight, rigidity, and formability, EPS can be used in a wide range of different applications. Parameters Balsa Wood Carbon Fiber Rohacell Weight 5 5 5 Strength to weight ratio 2 4.5 5 Availability 5 5 1 Cost 4 4 0.5 Machinability 5 4 3 Total 21 22.5 14.5  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 34-40 © IAEME   37   4. Rubber (For landing gear) For aircraft, the landing gear supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take off, land and usually to taxi without damage. Wheels are typically used but skids, skis, floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed depending both on the surface and on whether the craft only operates vertically (VTOL) or is able to taxi along the surface. Aircraft tires are designed to withstand extremely heavy loads for short durations. The number of tires required for aircraft increases with the weight of the plane (because the weight of the airplane has to be distributed better). Aircraft tire tread patterns are designed to facilitate stability in high crosswind conditions, to channel water away to prevent hydroplaning, and for braking effect.Aircraft tires are usually inflated with nitrogen or helium to minimize expansion and contraction from extreme changes in ambient temperature and pressure experienced during flight. Dry nitrogen expands at the same rate as other dry atmospheric gases, but common compressed air sources may contain moisture, which increases the expansion rate with temperature.The use of an inert gas for tire inflation will eliminate the possibility of a tire explosion. 5. Aluminium Alloys Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been very important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of magnesium. The following aluminium alloys are commonly used in aircraft and other aerospace structures. 7068 aluminium 7075 aluminium 6061 aluminium 6063 aluminium 2024 aluminium 5052 aluminium The addition of scandium to aluminium creates nanoscale Al3Sc precipitates which limit the excessive grain growth that occurs in the heat-affected zone of welded aluminium components. This has two beneficial effects: the precipitated Al3Sc forms smaller crystals than are formed in other aluminium alloys and the width of precipitate-free zones that normally exist at the grain boundaries of age-hardenable aluminium alloys is reduced. However, titanium alloys, which are stronger but heavier, are cheaper and much more widely used. The main application of metallic scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components. These alloys contain between 0.1% and 0.5% (by weight) of scandium. The advantages of aluminium alloys (2219 etc.) also include their high performance under cryogen temperatures in contact with liquid oxygen, hydrogen, and helium. The so-called cryogen reinforcement happens in these alloys, i.e. the strength and flexibility increase parallel to the decreasing temperature. They are used for manufacturing various components of spaceship equipment: brackets, fixtures, chassis, covers and casing for many tools and devices. 6. Steel To facilitate the discussion of steels, some familiaritywith their nomenclature is desirable. A numericalindex, sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute(AISI), is used to identify the chemical compositionsof the structural steels.The various nickel steels are produced by combiningnickel with carbon steel. Steels containing from3 to 3.75 percent nickel are commonly used. The corrosion resistant steel mostoften used in aircraft
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