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INDEX Introduction In Pursuit of an Ideal Smelter Basic Concept of the Mitsubishi Process Advantages of the Mitsubishi Process Environment /Recycling Cost Competitiveness Process Reliability and Control Typical Plant Layout and Design Parameters Mitsubishi Process Smelters in Operation around the World Naoshima Kidd Creek Onsan Gresik Port Kembla Company Profile Available Services Our atmosphere, the air we breathe, is common to all of Earth's inhabitants. Our planet provides The Mitsubishi
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  INDEXIntroduction In Pursuit of an Ideal Smelter Basic Concept of the Mitsubishi Process Advantages of the Mitsubishi ProcessEnvironment /Recycling Cost Competitiveness Process Reliability and Control Typical Plant Layout and Design Parameters Mitsubishi Process Smelters in Operation around the World NaoshimaKidd Creek Onsan Gresik Port Kembla Company ProfileAvailable Services The Mitsubishi Process ensures environmental protection of the surrounding community, clean and safe workplace conditions, and the highest copper, gold, silver and sulfur recoveries in the copper industry. Its operating costs are low and the cost of plant construction is keenly competitive. These are but a few of the many technological aspects, which we will cover more fully in the following pages.Our atmosphere, the air we breathe, is common to all of Earth's inhabitants. Our planet provides us with abundant natural resources........clear waters........bountiful seas........fertile lands........ and verdant forests. All must be carefully nurtured, widely enjoyed, understood, appreciated, and most important of all, must be protected and sustained for the benefit of future generations. Since the inception of the Mitsubishi Process, we have constantly challenged our own technology, striving to make it more efficient, and ever friendlier to the environment. It is THE PROCESS for the 21st Century. The Mitsubishi Continuous Smelting and Converting Process which we have evolved from years of research and production experience, is the world's only commercially proven pyro-metallurgical process to produce blister copper continuously from concentrates.  IN PURSUITOF N IDE L SMELTER Aerial view of Naoshima smelter and refinery The Mitsubishi Process:A step ahead of the rest Copper has been recognized as a valuable resource since ancient times. Mitsubishi Materials has sought to optimize the smelting of this valuable resource for many years. We believe the ideal smelter should be environ-mentally friendly, highly efficient, and inexpensive to build and operate. Our Mitsubishi Process attains all of the above goals. Unique structure that stresses environmental friendliness From the start of its development, the Mitsubishi Process has aimed at eliminating fugitive emissions from furnaces and ladles. Thus the Mitsubishi furnace arrangement consists of three stationary furnaces, connected by enclosed launders, continuously producing blister copper from concentrates. Furnace charging and tapping are eliminated, so   no ladles and cranes are required,  and there are no fugitive emissions.  These are the basic reasons why the Mitsubishi Process is so clean to operate, and why it has such an unique structure. As demonstrated daily by our family of smelters at Naoshima, Kidd Creek, Onsan, and Gresik, the use of the Mitsubishi Process has elevated their copper smelting to clean industry status. An important and lasting advantage in complying with more stringent environmental regulations in the future. Half a century of development Testing of injection feeding began, one of the cornerstones of the Mitsubishi Process. Successful completion of continuous smelting and converting pilot plant testing.First commercial scale Mitsubishi Process plant with 48,000 MTPY production capacity, commenced opera-tions in Naoshima.Second commercial scale Mitsubishi Process plant with 60,000 MTPY production capacity, commenced opera-tions at Kidd Creek Smelter in Canada.Production capacity was doubled at Naoshima to 96,000 MTPY.Production capacity at Kidd Creek doubled to 125,000 MTPY.New larger Mitsubishi Process line with production capacity of 200,000 MTPY started operating in Naoshima, replacing operations using the reverberatory furnace + P.S. converters and the srcinal Mitsubishi Process line. New Mitsubishi Process smelter started at Onsan, Korea, with production capacity of 160,000 MTPY.New greenfield Mitsubishi Process smelter started at Gresik in Indonesia, with production capacity of 200,000 MTPY.The first stand alone Mitsubishi C-furnace started operating at Port Kembla Copper, in Australia in place of previously used P.S. converters.Naoshima's production capacity increased to 270,000 MTPY of anodes from new source.Naoshima Smelter accredited with ISO 14001. 1959197019741981198219881991199819982000 20002001  from the bottom of the furnace to a covered launder, flowing continuously into the C-furnace. C-furnace The Converting furnace (C-furnace) removes the remaining iron and sulfur from the copper matte, producing blister copper (about 98.5% Cu). The C-furnace is similar to the S-furnace, but smaller in diameter, and uses identical vertical blowing lances to inject limestone flux, coolant, and oxygen enriched air. Over 30 years ago, Mitsubishi carefully selected, 150 to 200 m/s. The concentrates are bath-smelted instantly, producing a high grade matte of around 68% copper and silicate slag. The use of top blowing lances ensures that the melt is always well mixed and makes the Mitsubishi S-furnace one of the most efficient and compact copper smelting units in the world. It also ensures very high capture of the feed solids, with less than 3% solids (plus volatiles) carried over with the Anode casting Anode casting wheelAnode Anode copper Anode furnace C-furnace C-slag recyled toS-furnceBlister copperLanceOffgasOffgasAnode scrapLance blowing air(30-35% O 2 )(50-60% O 2 ) Flux &coolant Matte CL-furnace ElectrodeDiscard slag Scrap copperLanceSlag & matte S-furnace Concs,coal,flux &C-slagLance blowing air S-furnace lances S-furnaceC-furnaceCL-furnace As mentioned previously, the Mitsubishi Process con-sists of three stationary furnaces in cascade,  connected by launders. By adopting this multi-furnace system,  smelting, slag cleaning, and converting operations can be carried out continuously   under ideal conditions for efficient copper recovery and removal of impurities. Furthermore, the adoption of top blowing lances,  and a special type of slag for the C-furnace are integral items that make continuous operations possible. The following section describes the Mitsubishi Process in more detail. S-furnace Dried concentrates (containing roughly 30% copper, 25% iron, and 30% sulfur, and moisture content about 0.5%), are mixed with coal, silica sand and recycled converter slag. The mixed feed is injected into the Smelting furnace (S-furnace) through vertical lances, together with oxygen enriched air, at a velocity between researched, and pioneered the use of limestone for the continuous conversion of matte to blister. This lime- ferrite slag (Cu 2 O-CaO-Fe 3 O 4 ) has a lower viscosity and a much higher solubility for magnetite than silicate type slags. The choice of limestone as the C-furnace flux was one of the key factors in the successful develop-ment of the Mitsubishi Process, still the only technology to embody continuous converting. The relatively small tonnage of converter slag (carrying about 14% copper) overflows the C-furnace, and is water granulated, dried and recycled to the S-furnace. Blister with about 0.6 to 0.7% sulfur siphons up out of the furnace, and is continuously delivered to the anode furnaces for pyro-refining to anode copper. Anodes for the tankhouse can be cast in moulds mounted on a large diameter wheel, or through a Hazelett Twin-Belt caster and Mannesmann flying shear. two pairs of three. Here the mixed matte and fayalite slag (2FeOSiO 2 ) separate by difference in specific gravity. The lighter slag contains about 0.6% copper, and continuously overflows from the CL-furnace into a fast flowing flume of water where it is instantly granulated, and can then be either sold or discarded without any additional treatment. Meanwhile the heavier matte sinks to the bottom of the furnace and siphons continuously furnace offgases into the waste heat boiler. The main heat source for smelting comes from the oxidization of iron and sulfur in concentrate, and the balance made up by coal. The matte and slag formed continuously overflows together from the S-furnace, down an enclosed launder into the CL-furnace. CL-furnace The slag cleaning furnace (CL-furnace) is a quiescent electric furnace powered by 6 electrodes arranged in
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