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  D.SAMEERA  2010 UNIT-IIImproving Software Economics - It is not that much easy to improve the software economics but also difficult to measure and validate.- There are many aspects are there in order to improve the software economics they are, Sie, !rocess, !ersonnel, Environment and uality.- These parameters #aspects$ are not independent they are dependent. %or e&ample, tools enable sie reduction and process improvements, sie-reduction approaches lead to process changes, and process improvements drive tool re uirements.- 'UI technology is a good e&ample of tools enabling a new and different process. 'UI builder tools permitted engineering teams to construct an e&ecutable user interface faster and less cost.- Two decades ago, teams developing a user interface would spend e&tensive time analying factors, screen layout, and screen dynamics. (ll this would done on paper. )here as by using 'UI, the paper descriptions are not necessary.- (long with these five basic parameters another important factor that has influenced software technology improvements across the board is the ever-increasing advances in hardware  D.SAMEERA  2010  performance. REDUCING SOFTWARE PRODUCT SIZE: - *y choosing the type of the language- *y using +bect-+riented methods and visual modeling- *y reusing the e&isting components and building reusable components - *y using commercial components,we can reduce the product sie of a software.  D.SAMEERA  2010 ere U!%s #Universal %unction !oints$ are useful estimators for language-independent in the early life cycle phases. The basic units of function points are/- E&ternal user inputs- E&ternal outputs- Internal logical data groups- E&ternal data Interfaces- E&ternal in uiries OBJECT ORIENTED METHODS AND VISUAL MODELING: - There has been a widespread movements in the 0112s toward +bect-+riented technology.  D.SAMEERA  2010 - Some studies concluded that +bect-+riented programming languages appear to benefit  both software productivity and software uality. +ne of such +bect-+riented method is U34-Unified 3odeling 4anguage. Booch described the folloi! three re#so!s for the s$ccess of the %ro&ects th#t #re $si! Ob&ect'Orie!ted co!ce%ts: 0$  An OO-model of the problem and its solution encourages a common vocabulary between the end user of a system and its developers, thus creating a shared understanding of the  problem being solved. 5$ The use of continuous integration creates opportunities to recognize risk early and make incremental corrections without weaken the entire development effort.3 An OO-architecture provides a clear separation among different elements of a system, crating firewalls that prevent a change in one part of the system from the entire architecture. (e #lso s$ ested fi)e ch#r#cteristics of # s$ccessf$l OO'Pro&ect* 0$ ( cruel focus on the development of a system that provides a well understood collection of essential minimal characteristics.5$ The e&istence of a culture that is centered on results, encourages communication, and yet is not afraid to fail.6$ The effective use of ++-modeling. 7$ The e&istence of a strong architectural vision.8$ The application of a well-managed iterative and incremental development life cycle.  REUSE:   +rganiations that translates reusable components into commercial products has the following characteristics/- They have an economic motivation for continued support.- They ta9e ownership of improving product uality, adding new features and transitioning to new technologies.
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