1. MObAL VERBS ANué A 1- 1° Bachillerato Modal verbs oreo specol group of ouxiliory verbs. They dori’t express focts, we use them before other verbs to express…
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  • 1. MObAL VERBS ANué A 1- 1° Bachillerato Modal verbs oreo specol group of ouxiliory verbs. They dori’t express focts, we use them before other verbs to express otfitudes, opnions ond judgements of events: permission, ab’Jity, possibi/ity, request, obI,at,on 1) Correct the following sentences. 1. She conpioy the piono. 2. YoudeWt must open the book. fl)oslfl 3. Conyou)Çsing? / 4. Lan yeor 1 must work on Saturdoys. hcd C O 5. My sister couldnt her homework. (QL ¿cm 4 o1 o 6. 1 would like to ploy the violín. tr nk,ie (-O They ore different from most other verbs in four woys: 1. They ore olwoys followed by on nf initive without “to”; 2. They hove no —son the third person sinyulor; 3. They don’t need auxiliary in negotives ond questions: 4. They don’t have tenses, infinitíves or participles: Ir ABILIW CAN Present tMy boyfnénd can p/ov three musical instruments. fl COULb Post / Conditionol BE ABLE TO Other tenses tIçj/d ta/k g’hen 1 was twa. * One doy, people ui/II be ab/e fo vis’ t ,Mars. f have rever been ab/e to understandgrown-ups. * rd li/ce fo be ab/e fo understand mei, / women. Re’ng ab/e to swim /5 necessary if you uiant togo sai//ng. 2) Complete the sentences with can(”t), cau/d(n’t) or the correct fonn of (not) be ab/e fa. 1. It wos raining hord, sol ..CçkZitLf go out. 2. Id ove to±X..LibtC LS? fly. 3. 1 pee becouse rm not weor’ng my glasses. 4. The police ...CQL(.Qí? cotch him, so he escoped. 5. Re hG footboll since he broke his leg. 6. Isow the occident -1 might ..bEJ2L/c help the pohce. 7. It you dont teN me whot your problem ¡s,I a help you. MODAL VERH AUXJLIARY - / ‘%,/ ( ./ i . ‘ 4’ Imaygo out tontght. * John shou/dstudy harder. Con you help me.2 - No, Ican’t * Bemg ob/e fo speok Eng//sh is very use fu/nowadoys. ¡ ICQfl sk : 4%,
  • 2. 3) FUI ¡n the gaps with can(tj cou/d(’n’O or the correct form of (‘not, be ab/e fo. Deor Mary, I’m very pleosed you ç. llwÇ,$?i: coe to stay ot the weekend. rm sorry 1 ..Cø...idii...J talk te you on the phone lost night but 1 leave the boby. 1 Li ..C.E’ :Ls2 get tickets ter the theatre en 5aturday - 1 ..C oit to go. Mum soys thot when she wos young you have a night mit ter $2! Ycu certoinly CC’LO.P .... new! ‘C ?C’ Wc ..hCkçrH ÇCti..&ck lOtix the cor yet but Mum says we borrow hers. By the way, the baby .l,..Q&/C.kj.cgflsay three words new! See you on Fridoy. Love, Jane y ? cnn 1. uy MAY --- (formal) *yf speak ta yau.2 - Certa’hly you may. CQULb --- (polite) CauIdZ borrow yaur car? - Of caurse ycu can. MI&HT --- (more formal) * Migflf Tsee yaur d/ving licence, p/ease2 4) FUI iii with con, may, coda’, con’t Jim: Mum Ç1./(y)r 90 to the Iibrary? Mother: Of-coursç you ....Cf’ Jim, but you ....ç.X’ ¿ stay very long. Jim: .Viy.Jíe.’Ji stoy until 8.00? Mother: No, you ....CQÜ ¿ becouse dinner storts ot 8.30. (At the Iibrary) ¡ J(ocaC Jim: 1 look at the Iatest ‘Time” mogozine, pleose? Librarían: Yes, you but remember that you .4<?.’ 1 toke it mit of the librory. T1king...huLpermission * Students can use fha schaa/swfmmingpoa/. * Tf_d wear jeans ¿ti primary schoo/. PERMISSION Asking for / Sivina / efusing permissiQn CAN --- (informal) *Can Tuse ycur phane. - Of caurse yau can. 1 CAN Present COULb --- Post BE ALLOWEb TQ * students are a//cuica’ te use the schcal swimming peal. Thc reportar was al/cuica’ te takc a phota cf the singar. * When 1 turn 18, Tilbe a//cuica’ toga en ho/iday with my friends. *Ihave nevar been al/cuica’ te smcke at heme.
  • 3. 5) Complete the sentences wíth the corrcct form of (not) be a//owed to. 1. 1 ¿ stoy out lote but only ot the weekends. 2. That sign soys No smoking’. Vou .O,.dll../li?ç.ÇL,IP srnoke in here, 3. My brother .WOSa./..Q%%L.cC/ Ç watch the filrn last night because it was on tao lote. 4. In Britoin you..íiZc/&irc! E’ drive a cor while holding o mobile phone. 5. When we were younger, we ...CLCZC.,,(IJIO(ct..d...i9 go to bed late Qn Fridoy nights. 6. (‘tau) tJtyQ.(..CtUO.WZzd cometo the disco on Soturdoy night? 7. (They) %...1f%p...aiQ/Lttt..FC1 Weor jeWellery to school? - No, they oren’t 6) FilI in with can(tj could(n’tj may (not) or (not) be allowed te. Daniel: . (an/../Á.7s? Ego to the cinema to,ight? Mrs Baynes: ‘tau know youc?.//4Z ou+gj(n the week. Doniel: Rut .%f7Zj 14Ç(’ 5oturday either. 1 think Dod is too strict. Mrs Boynes: Don’t speok obout your fother liRe thot. He does What he thinks is best. Doniel: E hove sorne frier.ds over, then? Mrs Roynes: Em ofroid ycu ...c1tL..L......... We’re hovir,g sorne frierds for dinrer. Doniel: lot leost wotch TV foro while? Mrs Baynes: Ves, you ....&‘.J but only after you’ve done your homeWork. Daniel: Rut E hoven’t got ory homework! /Mrs Boynes: Ohl Well, in thot cose, you i.t..&s4iOhCçL. gÇ)0, but ‘tau ¿2?./ be horne late, Daniel: III be home by 11 o’clock, E promise. ¿ ú//oo A 7) Complete the sentences with the correct verb. Present Post Present Perfect Future 1. TWO of rny friends ..Ci/O plt he soxo. (obility) 2. At our school WC C%4.u/ (permission) 3. I&dJ.’2..rW’aTk When E wos one. (ability) f/ 4.1 6xC.L..,i............ stoy up lote untíl E wos twelve (perrnission). 5. I’ve 01 Woys k. iZLQ/.k..I.Ç.... swim fost. (obility) 6. Sh&s never&n.4//C!YJp.Iye her hoir.(permission) 7. rrn taking sküng lessons, next yeor 1 ..U.ktCISC..I.S?ski. (obility) 8.1 Won’t Lt.LI/oi Q get o job until E orn seventeen. (perrnission) POSSIBILITY / bEbUCTION MM MI&HT It is very possible It is possible COULb --- 5malI possibihty * He be bock befare naon, tHe g/g,t poss the exom thts tune, *HecoU/dgetruch oRe doy It may ciear hp for the pady, MUST It is almost certain; 1 think. * They /ook al//ce. They must be tw’ns. CANT It is impossible; E don’t think * f mus? be o 1/e. It can’t be true.
  • 4. 8) Choose the correct aption. 1. This i’?Vrn,ht/con be Joon’s fUe - it’s got her name ant. 2. We con rn’gh /rnust gato the beoch - we ore not sure. 3. E uLd/con/rnoy buyo motorcycle fI wonted to. 4. He never lies so he can’t/rnustn’t,? be telling the truth. 5. That womon (ç,q,y’_t/rnustn’t/cou/dnt be the head teocher - sh&s too young. 6. 1 rnustn’t/€ay/ can phone ycu tonight ¡fI hove time. AbVICE SHOULb * Yac.’ shou/d stop smc/cm9. / IthnIycu ( çbc. mci”, F.m rcsçr,r’, ccntL QUGHT TO * Yac.’ augh t te treo? onirnals kind/y. 9) Rewrite these sentences using the modal verbs in brackets. 1. £ odvise ycu to see ycur dentist. (shauld) 2. Em sure thot New York ¡son excíting city. (must) 3, It is possible thot III orrive home late. (moy) 4. I’m certoin thot studying ond working at the some time isn’t eosy. (cont) 5. Do you hove the obility ta write with your left hond? (con) OBLIGATION 4L MUST/ HAVE TO Present HÁVE TQ other tenses * We must follow Me school rules (Tan obhged) * 1 must see a doctor soca (1 decide, it is necessory) tlhave te lose sorne weigflt.(Externaf obligot/on. The doctor soys so) * bo you have te get up eorly every doy? tAt 7, Ihod_togo te bed befare tea *A t 30, 171 hove te look ofter ny fon/y tSince 1 was 7, 1 hove olwoys liad to mo/ce ny bed, PROHIBITION * Ha y/ng to ge? up eor/y is onnoying. MUSTNT * Yau mustn’t smc/ce atschool: Yoo can’? sino/ce otschool: You moy no? sino/ce otschoo/
  • 5. NO OBLIGATION bONT/ bQESNT HAVE TQ NEEbNT * Vea den’t huye fo take an timbre//a, It isnt ruin/ng. t/vly little gister deesn boye te do the washing ap. * Yeu needn Y taRe en timbre/la. It isn ‘t raüv½g. * %ly little sister needn ‘t de the washing ap. 10) FuI in the gaps with must, mustn’t needn’t or can’t. TRIS ISA SMOKE FREE SCHOOL SMOKING PROHIBITED In this SChOOI students íYiksíILL./CÇaf2..k. smoke. They con dress os they Iike, they weor school uniforms but they cót..L/t t’’keor dirty clothes. Students ccZ/o.1w.?.JItove school until 3 pm. They .EUQS&ta.’Zi........ forget to do their homework. They ..a-i.c.rfr P DrIng o doctor s note if they ore sick, their porents con write une. Students be lote for closs or tolk loudly in lessons. 5tudents ..pJa..t..... follow these rules, but teochers LICcdr.....L..... obey them becouse they have o seporote set of rules to follow. 11) Choose the correct meoning for each sentence L bogs can t come in here. (Sbogs oren’t ollowed in here. b) Its better if dogs don’t comen here. 2. It can t be John. Hesatschoel. ,9)Its possible thot it’s John. Çb)±ts impossible thot its John. 3. It might ram later. ¿cok cf those b/ack clouds. o) It definitely wont ruin loter. j’its possible it will roin loter. 4. Lara oaght te change her computer. Its necessory for Loro to chonge her computer. (bYits o good idea for Loro to chonge her computer. 5 Ypumastn ‘t taRe a mobile phene te schooí its ogoinst the rules to toke o mobile phone to school. b) You shouldn’t take o mobile phone to school, but you con it you wont tu. 6. Vea needn t harry. Wc aren t late. o) It isn’t o good ideo to hurry. (5”Tt isnt necessory to hurry. 7 Vea have te be se venteen te apply for a driving licence in Gritamn, (oats necessory to be seventeen before you con opply foro driving licence. b) You con opply for a driving licence before you ore 17 12) Rephrase the following sentences so that they mean the sorne 1, You cant toke photogrophs in the Reino Sofío Museum. (be ollowed to) X’ ‘1 a 2. Perhops we9l go to o footboll motch ot the weekend. (moy) ¿tE F)t19 90 ¿ O a 3. It’s o good idea for you to listen more corefully. (ought tu) j bE’ LI.Sk’,7. 4. 1 con borrow my porents’ cor whenever 1 like. (be ollowed to) 2 112cfCo&td Cc’ 5. It is o bod idea to wear o coot in this weother. (shouldn’t) hcudfl 1 LuÑIÍ 6. When 1 wos three 1 couldnt ride o bike. (be oble to) 2 n1 ÓéÚ it’ It’s my birthdoy but it isnt necessory for you to buyo present (neednt),9ót jxtcb/ hy 8. The students con use dictionories in the English exom. (be ollowed to) 510&»iS OIt 9. rm sure they are exhausted. (must) ?tcy /71031 be C.kkrU.JC . . 10. My grondfother wos obliged tu do militory service when he was 18. (boye to) A7cntY/4//rf /Yc% ¿o do, - 7. lo lake..
  • 6. PERFECT MObALS Wc can use sorne modal verbs in the perfect forrn to talk abcut past events. MQbAL + HAVE + PAST PAflCIPLE MAY / MIGHT HAVE ÷ Post Porticiple -- possibility in the past 51w hosn’t come yet. She may /m’qht have taken the wrong bus. COULb HAVE + Post Porticiple -- alternative post action We ecuid have inviteS her te the part, but we oíl forgo t. MUST HAVE ÷ Post Participle -- Certainty that samething was true. Linda has arr/ved/ate. She must have been ir a trafficjam. CANT HAVE + Post Porticiple -- rmpossibility in the post tshe can’t have passed the exam - she didn’t study at a/li SHOULb / SHQULbN’T HAVE -- Criticism after on event lshouldnt have staved out so late last n,ght. 1 feel terrible. 13) Chaose the correct alternative. 1. ‘1 got 95% in my history exam.’ - ‘Itmihthave/€an’th been very difficult!’ 2. ‘Everywhere is very wet. - ‘Iitmyphai)i/can’thave rair,ed in the niyht. 3. 1 saw your brother in town this morning.’ - ‘Ycu m%ht have /nt havé seen him because hes away.’ 4. ‘1 phoned yau Iast night but there was no reply.’ - ‘tmiTJhave / can ‘t have been in the bathroarn.’ 5. ‘Have ycu firiished your hornewark?’ - No, 1 miqht hayo Cshouldhavedone it but 1 haven’t hod time. 6. ‘Angela was olways laaking forward to seeing Maria. - Hejnust have?can ‘t have really liked her then.’ 14) Complete the sentences with the perfect forms of the modals. 1. ‘Where’s Adela?- She .flJM3 ch (must / leave) because her cor isn’t outside.’ 2. ‘Oliver passed his rnaths exarn,’ - ‘HeCt?, FI (can’t / do). He didn’t do ony work!’ 3. ‘Where’s Elena? 5he’s really late.’ - ‘She . .,2Ç4JiL/?C1ft.n7/S..CC( (might / miss) the bus.’ 4. ‘Poor Maria. She feels sick.’ - ‘She .,,CÇLJC *?Ct V Jet (could / eat) something bad.’ 5. ‘My brother ¡s 13 tamorraw.’ - ‘5° he ?.uf..J&k ¿2E.c., . ) (must / be) born in 1991. ó. ‘Oh no. I’ve gone the viran9 way.’ - ‘You ....L?C1 /.q&.r.(hould 1 take) the lost turning.’ 1. He wasn’t able to write until he was eight. He ..Ç.&J.d.o..i’ ¿ t. • / /6 2. Talking is not permitted during the test. Ycu ,tin.YajjO,Lc(/ £L’ ¿Ci /s’s 3. It isn’t right to speak to ycur mother like that. Yau6/u2L./dF/ / pCa ‘ 4. 1 advise you to drive more slawly. You ..hQ.flCL.d[L.C 5. It isn’t necessory to buyo ticket. Ycu .J.?CCdOJ/dM2.í½e t, fc’ 6. It is passible that he will vm the race. He n llie (O CC 7. I’m sure that is John’s car. That it&2L.6e .42ht)..S..1 of 8. It 5 abligatary to wear a uniform in this schoal. You .c1Or..’ %cr Jo /úcerL T’r. — 9. I’m sure Jim didn’t mentian the matter to anyane. Jim CaO Y hok.zc fflefl//Úøct! 10. Perhaps he has gane home. He imp L..h.?.W )a12’ /oo2e .-r 6% 15) Rewríte the following sentences beginning with the words given. ÑEVER EVER EVERSIVS UF! 1
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