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Module 9-10 Resume - New Cutting Edge - Upper Intermediate

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UPPER INTERMEDIATTE – NEW CUTTING EDGE Module 9 Grammar: Overview of modal verbs 1. Modal Verbs: Estos verbos se usan con verbos principales para formar afrmaciones o preguntas. Los modales no tienen conjugaciones ni tiempo y no se pueden usar sin el verbo principal. En inglés, el verbo principal siempre queda en forma infnitiva sin to, ecepto el modal ought. 1) !ould !ould#$% &deber #o deber): is used by obligations t!at are not strong. t is not necessary to do somet!ing but its #a good
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  UPPER INTERMEDIATTE – NEW CUTTING EDGE Module 9Grammar : Overview of modal verbs 1. Modal Verbs: Estos verbos se usan con verbos principales para formar armaciones o preguntas. Los modales no tienen conjugaciones ni tiempo y no se pueden usar sin el verbo principal . En inglés, el verbo principal siempre queda en forma innitiva sin to , ecepto el modal ought  . 1)!ould !ould#$% &deber #o deber): is used by obligations t!at are not strong. t is not necessary to do somet!ing but its #a good idea$ or t!e rig!t or t!e correct t!ing. ã  %ou s!ould  be in bed now. &deber'as estar en la cama a!ora( ã  %ou s!ould#'%  eat so muc! c!ocolate &no deber'as comer tanto c!ocolate()emember:a( Ought to  !as t!e same mea#(#  as s!ould. t is followed by t!e innitive *to+ ã  %ou ou!% %o   be  in bed now. Should can be followed by a continuous form ã  %ou s!ould#$% be *arr+(#  t!at !eavy suitcase. &no deber'as estar cargando ese equipaje pesado( ,)Mus% Mus%#$%: epress a necesity. !ere are two types of neccesity:a( -bl(a%(o# &obligatorio, por mandato de ley, trabajo, jefe, padres, etc( ã mus%  go now. $ve got to be at wor- early tomorrow. &ebo/tengo que irme a!ora. engo que estar en el trabajo ma0ana temprano.(b( o(*al #e**es(%+: !ere mus% means # from the evidence I am sure this is true’  ã   1e$s not answering !is p!one. 1e  mus% be in a meeting .No%e: f we want to say t!at somet!ing is logically impossible, we use *a#$% ã 2urely !e *a#$%  be sity, !e only loo-s about forty /)Ca#: 3an epress possibilitty in t!ree ways: 1  a( Ab(l(%+: 2!e *a#  spea- 4uent 5erman &6 s!e is able to spea- geman(b( Persm(ss(o#:  3an interrupt for a moment &6 s it possibly to interrupt7(c( Ge#eral 0oss(b(l(%+:   t very !ot in summer, but it *a#  be free8ing in winter.9otice t!at *a#  is not used to tal- about specic possibilities, eit!er in t!e present or in t!e future. Eample: ã Loo- in t!e cupboard. t can / could / may / mig!t be t!ere. )Could:  also epress possibilitty in t!ree ways:a( Ab(l(%+ &as %!e 0as% o2 *a# (. 1e *ould  already wal- in !is rst birt!dayb( Persm(ss(o#:   Could   interrupt for a moment7c( Prese#% 2u%ure 0oss(b(l(%+:  Of course *ould  be wrong 3)Ma+: 5enerally may   &not( epresses in two waysa( Perm(ss(o# & mainly in t!e rst person: 2ormal) ã Ma+   spea- to you for a moment7b( Prese#% 2u%ure 0oss(b(l(%+ : !ere ma+  be a storm later 4)M(!%: Epresses in t!ree waysa( Prese#% 2u%ure 0oss(b(l(%+:  e mig!t see you later. e$ll see w!at !appens.b( Perm(ss(o#: M(!% as- you to spea- up a little *)I# re0or%ed s0ee*! as %!e 0as% o2 ma+ ã 5 it may rain+ ;;; 1e said it m(!%  rain later Resume:  !e di<erents degrees of probability epressed by modal verbs can be summarised li-e t!is: ã ure lo(*all+ *er%a(# : must ã Poss(ble6 bu% #o% *er%a(# : may,mig!t,could ã ure lo(*all+ *er%a(# %!a% #o% %o !a00e# : can=t ,.Pas% modals1)7ad %o &tuve que( : !en must epresses obligation t!e past form is had to  and t!e negative didn’t have to ã !en was at sc!ool 6 I !ad %o d(d#'% !a8e to wear a uniform ,)Could:  !e past of can is   could    or   was able to ã e *ould  come and go w!erever we wanted 2  /)Ca#$% !a8e6 *ould &#o%) !a8e6 ma+ &#o%) !a8e6m(!% &#o%)!a8e6 mus% !a8e: all t!ese modal verbs of probability !aveequivalent past forms &modal>!ave>past participle( ã  %ou mus% !a8e bee#  worried w!en you !eard aboutt!at. &6logically seems certain t!at t!is !appened( ã  !e ma+ m(!% *ould *ould   !a8e  got in t!roug! t!ewindow &6logically it is possible t!at t!is !appened( ã  !ey *a#$% !a8e *l(mbed  over t!at wall wit!out aladder &6logically it seems impossible t!at t!is!appened( )!ould !a8e a#d ou!% !a8e:  !e past form of should  is should have ã  %ou  s!ould !a8e loc-ed t!e door before you went out.&6t!is was a good idea but you didn$t( ã  %ou  s!ould'#% !a8e left t!e door unloc-ed   &6 t!is wasn$t a good idea but you did it( !e past of ou!% %o  is ou!% %o !a8e >past participle ã e oug!t to !ave boo-ed in advance;t!ere are not tablesleft. Vo*abular+ : 1.%ra#e E8e#%s a. A !oa: un enga0o/broma  b. A m(ra*le: un milagro c. A m+s%er(ous d(sa00eara#*e: una misteriosa desaparici?n d. A #a%ural 0!e#ome#o#: un fen?meno natural e. A 0remo#(%(o#: una premonici?n &6 presentimiento, presagio( f. Tele0a%!+: telepat'a g. A %r(*: @.truco / A. broma / B.trampa -%!ers: a case of mista-en identity, a coincidence, a g!ost story, an unsolved murder, a state of panic, t!e soul, bald &calvo(, bless you &salud/epresi?n usada al estornudar(. Words rela%ed 2or s%ud+: ã D(sra*e2ul: vergon8oso, des!onroso ã 0oo+: espelu8nante, que da miedo ã We(rd: @. misterioso A. raro,etra0o ã T!e d(a0!ram: el diafragma ã ;allo;(# ra0(dl+: tragar rapidamente ã Tes%os%ero#e: testosterona ã T(*l(s! & adj  ):  cosquilloso, que tiene cosquillas ã 7(**u0:  !ipo ã lee0;aled:  sonCmbulo ã  <a;#:  boste8ar 2. Words0o%: WR-NG 3  a.  %ou$ve got a ;ro# #umber &#=mero e>u(8o*ado)6 is used w!en you get a p!one number you didn$t want.  b. E8er+%!(# ?s o#e ;ro# &%odo es%a sal(e#do mal)6 means everyt!ing$s failed or turned out badly. c.  !eres is  some%!(# ;ro# ;(%! &!a+ alo mal *o#)6 it means it !as a problem/doesn$t wor-. d.  !eres is  #o%!(# ;ro# ;(%! (%   &#ada es%a mal)6  means somet!ing is wor-ing OD. e. W!a%$s ;ro#@ &Bu 0asa su*ede@)6 means *w!ats t!e problem7+ f. t$s a  ;ro# ;a+   u0 &0os(*(# (#*orre*%a de) means t!at front is at t!e bac- and t!e bac- is in t!e front. g. t$s t!e ;ro# ;a+   rou#d6  means t!at t!e bottom is w!ere t!e top s!ould be. h. t$s (# %!e ;ro# 0la*e   &es%a mal 0ues%o)6  means somet!ing is not w!ere it s!ould be. i.  %ou ;ere *om0le%el+ ;ro# abou%   &es%aba# e>u(8o*ados a*er*a de)  !er, means you judged someone unfairly. /.M+s%er(es60roblems6odd(%(es &rareas) a) A *arr(ae: un carruaje  b) To *o#s0(re a *o#s0(ra#*+ : conspirar/una conspiraci?n c) To ;re* some%!(#: destruir algo d) To %ra*e someo#e: describir/ubicar a alguien e) A me#%al as+lum: manicomio f) I#sa#e (#sa#(%+: loco, locura  -%!ers:  !e plague, a !otel register .a+(# ;!a%$s ;ro# ;(%! %!(#s a) I%$s o% a !ole (# (%:  iene un !ueco a!' &ropa, otros (  b) I% does#$% F%: 9o es el apropiado/ideal/adecuado c) I%$s bur#%: Esta quemado d) I%$s *!(00ed: @ e) I%$s s!ru# (# %!e ;as!: 2e !a encogido en la lavadora f) I%$s o% a s%a(# o# (%:  iene una manc!a a!i g) I% does#$% su(% +ou: Esto no te queda &ropa( h) I% does#$% ;or: 9o funciona i) I%$s s*ra%*!ed:   EstC rayado &cds(  j) I%$s (s#$% *!ar(#: 9o esta cargando   &celular( -%!ers:  !eres is a part missing, t$s t!e wrong si8e, it isn$t w!at you order, it$s t!e wrong colour Wr(%(# : @.rite a story about a ysteries and oddities: Epressions t!at you s!ould use: D(s*uss(# solu%(o#s ã t!in- -now w!at mig!t !ave !appened... ã One possible eplanation is t!at.... 4
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