Music Definitions

Music history main definitions
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   1.   MASS ORDINARY: -   Term that for musicians mean: the five invariant texts sung by the choir: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei. -   Began to receive significant attention in the Carolingian period; -   Later they began to get set as an unified polyphonic cycle, spawning a tradition of mass composition that lasted into the 20 th  century -   Many famous composers of the standard concert repertory (Bach, Mozart, etc.) made contributions. 2.   DIES IRAE: -   Sequence of the requiem mass very well-known melody -   Poem probably by Thomas of Celano (dc. 1250). -   Syllabic and arranged in couplets, second line repeats the melody of the first. -   The plainsong tune has been introduced into instrumental music, as in Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique , Saint S aens’s Danse macabre , among others. 3.   REQUIEM MASS: -   The mass for the dead of the Roman rite. -   Format is basically identical with that of the normal Latin mass -   More joyful parts omitted, such as the alleluia and the Credo, and the long 13 th -century sequence Dies Irae interpolated. 4.   TROUBADORS AND TROUVERES: -   Troubadors and Trobairitz (women) were poet composers -   Southern France -   12 th  century -   Spoke Provencal (Occitane) -   Trouveres were their counterpart in northern France -   Spoke the langue de o ã l -   Remained active through the 13 th  century. -   Their poems are strophic, and melodies are mostly syllabic with a range of an octave or less. -   Each line of a canso (love song) receives its own melodic phrase, and some phrases use repetition to create formal patterns. -   One of the most prominent troubadours was Bernart de Ventadorn. Bernart de Ventadorn (ca. 1150-1180), remembered for his mastery and popularization of the trobar leu  style, and for his prolific can  ons, which helped define the genre and establish the classical form of courtly love poetry.  Comtessa Beatriz de Dia was a countess and a troubairitz in southern France from the twelfth century, and her song  A chantar   shows a woman’s perspective of courtly love. 5.   ORGANUM: -   One of several styles of early polyphony -   In use from the 9 th  through the 13 th  centuries -   Reached its most sophisticated levels in Paris at the cathedral of Notre Dame. -   It is a form of troping a chant and offering the possibility of adding new layers of melody in a vertical dimension. -   Leoninu’s organum for soloists alternates sections in organum style with sections in discant style. 6.   PARALLEL ORGANUM: -   Type of polyphony -   Appeared in the 9 th  century -   An added voice (organal voice) appears below a chant melody (principal voice) moving in parallel fifths or fourth and making adjustments to avoid the tritone. -   Either or both voices may be doubled at the octave. 7.   NOTRE DAME POLYPHONY: -   Notre Dame polyphony is an elaborated style of polyphony -   Late 12th and 13th centuries, -   Associated with the composers working at or near the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, along with the music they produce. Clausula is, in Notre Dame polyphony (late12th and 13 th  centuries), a self-contained section consisting of melismatic figures based on a single word or syllable, closing with a cadence. They move in modal rhythm, producing short phrases and lively pacing. 8.   LEONINUS: -   (ca.1150) was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum -   12 th  century, probably French. -   He compiled the Magnus Liber Organi   (“Great Book of Polyphony”), containing two-voice settings of the solo portions of the responsorial chants for major feasts of the church year. 9.   MOTET: -   Polyphonic vocal composition -   Originated in the early 13 th  century. -   It refers to a clausula taken from its srcinal place in a larger polyphonic work and performed as an independent composition with the upper voice singing newly added Latin or French words.  -   In the 15 th  century, the term was applied to any polyphonic composition on a Latin text other than the Mass Ordinary. 10.   ARS NOVA: -   Was the new musical style emerged in France -   14 th  century, -   Named after the treatise  Ars Nova notandi (A New Technique of Writing Music) -   Attributed to Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361). -   It presents developments in notation, allowing notes to be written with greater independence of rhythm, and new techniques and forms, such as isorhythm and the isorhythmic motet. -   Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini were the most important Ars Nova composers. a.   Roman de Fauvel   is a 14 th  century satirical poem by Gervais du Bus with interpolated music, typical of the 14 th   century. It’s about a jackass who rises to power and offspring destroy the world. It includes thirty-four motets and numerous monophonic songs, many texts referring to abuses of contemporary political and religious life. (ca. 1291-1361) b.   Philippe de Vitry   was a French composer, poet and theorist from the 14 th  century who wrote the treatise  Ars Nova notandi  (A New Technique of Writing Music). The motets that he may have written in the Roman de Fauvel   poem provide the earliest examples of isorhythm (the tenor features a repeating rhythm pattern). c.   (ca. 1300-1377) Guillaume de Machaut   was the leading poet and composer of the French Ars Nova (14 th  century). His Messe de Notre Dame  is probably the first polyphonic setting of the mass ordinary to be written by a single composer and conceived as a unit. 11.   ARS SUBTILIOR: -   Style of polyphony -   Late 14 th  century and very early 15 th  century -   Southern France and northern Italy, -   Distinguished by extreme complexity in rhythm and notation. -   This music was intended for professional performers and cultivated listeners. -   One of the main exponents of was Philippus de Caserta. o   Philippus de Caserta  was a music theorist and composer from the late 14th century. He tested the limits of Ars Nova notation with syncompations (different meters in different voices, and rhythmic disjunction, as seen in his ballade En remirant vo douce  pourtraiture ).  12.   ISORHYTHM: -   Technique developed in the 14 th  century -   Consists on the repetition of an extended pattern of durations in a voice part throughout a section or an entire composition. -   It made easier for singers to memorize music. -   The motets by Philippe de Vitry written in the Roman de Fauvel poem provide the earliest examples of isorhythm. ISORHYTHMIC MOTET: -   Musically unifying device from the Medieval and the early Renaissance -   Tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm, which recurs up to 10 times. -   The repeating rhythmic unit is called the tenor, melodic unit called color. -   The upper voice moves quicker than the tenor; the tenor serves as the foundation for the polyphony. -   Machaut motets used the hocket (2 voices alternate in rests and notes). 13.   FORMES FIXES: -   S  chemes of poetic and musical repetition, each featuring a refrain, -   Used in late-medieval and 15th century French chansons; -   In particular: the ballade, rondeau, and virelai. -   The first comprehensive repertory of these form was written by Guillaume de Machaut. 14.   CONTENANCE ANGLOISE: -   Or lively consonance refers to a group of characteristics of English music -   in the 15 th  century -   Marked with pervasive consonance and frequent use of harmonic thirds and sixths, often in parallel motion. -   The main representative composer was John Dunstable. (ca.1390-1453) the leading English composer in the first half of the 15th century. 15.   GUILLAUME DU FAY: (ca. 1397-1474) -   Born in Brussels, was the most famous composer of the Burgundian style of his time -   His music well represents the international style of the mid-15 th  century. -   His ballade Resvellies vous  blends French and Italian characteristics -   The chanson Se la face ay pale  illustrate the strong influence of English music. 16.   MOTTO MASS: -   Mass that uses the same head motive, or motto, to begin each movement. -   This most commonly occurred in the tenor voice.

sto. nino

Jul 23, 2017
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