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  Institute of Musicology of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Department of Fine Arts and Music of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts RETHINKING MUSICAL MODERNISM International musicological conference   Belgrade, 11–13 October 2007   ABSTRACTS   1 Jim Samson (London) Disciplining Modernism The paper will explore Modernism in music by way of discourses in both history and geography, and with a particular focus on the Balkans. Recent revisions to our understanding of modernism will be placed within a dialectic of the ‘event’ (the transformative moment, foregrounding agency) and the kairos (the point of perfection, foregrounding structure). There are two opposing models of the dynamics of cultural history here, and they will be explored in the context of ideas from Badiou, Dahlhaus and Derrida. In the context of the former model I will invoke the category of nostalgia (Svetlana Boym), which I take to be a dependent of modernist innovation and more particularly a response to intervention and trauma. In the context of the latter model I will invoke the category of appropriation (Roger Chartier). In drawing a line between past and present, I argue, we create an autonomous present that chooses and then appropriates (rather than assimilates) its past. Some implications for historical musicology will be explored. The categories of nostalgia and appropriation, explored under history, will then be examined in relation to placement and displacement, centres and peripheries, urban and rural ecologies. It will be argued here that modernism produced an unlikely alliance between an avant-garde and rural ‘folk’ music, at the expense of the more hybrid idioms of urban popular music. Both were ‘authentic’, in the sense that they were respectively innocent of, or wary of, the debasements of mercantile art. The implications for ethnomusicology, a discipline which (in its formative stages) found cultural hybridity deeply problematical, will be explored. The Balkans provide an ideal laboratory for the scrutiny of these ideas. This territory is part of Europe but has been written out of its culture, and has indeed come to be viewed either as the dark (oriental) side of European consciousness, or as the emptiness at its heart; in other words, it has had to accept attributes of inferiority and backwardness in order to affirm European civilisation. This invites an exploration of European projects of modernity by way of Balkan alterities. But this can be turned round. It is not always recognized that we can only revise Modernism by also revising conservatism. Melita Milin (Belgrade) Musical Modernism in the “Agrarian Countries of South-Eastern Europe”: The Change of Function of Folklore in the 20 th  Century     2 The problem of introducing folk melodies into 20ty century modernist music was inherited from the previous century. It seems that western composers and musicologists were surprised at the survival of an interest in the fusion of the two musical cultures after Romanticism. They regarded the use of folk material mainly as a means of creating a specific atmosphere or incorporating colourful effects into music, while denying – with few exceptions – higher significance to those works, especially if they belonged to instrumental genres. The appearance of Stravinsky’s Sacre du printemps, Bartók’s string quartets and Janá č ek’s late works demonstrated however that the new folklorism which they represented, had become a vital and stimulating part of modernist tendencies. Nevertheless, there were still strong oppositions to such an orientation, which was mainly viewed as an expression of the particularization of the universal – a reproach that had also often been made in the 19 th  century. Theodor Adorno’s well-known foot-note in his Philosophy of New Music, which   contains several interesting and provocative observations on “exterritorial” composers and using folk music “without shame” in their music, will be commented upon. The issue of the alienating potentiality of folklore and of its “critical” use was however completely out of sight for the majority of 20 th  century composers interested in using folk music in their works. This was certainly true of Serbian composers of the first half of the century, whose attitudes, and the possibility of placing them on the map of European modernism will be discussed in a short overview of the most representative composers: of Petar Konjovi ć  (1883–1971), Miloje Milojevi ć  (1884–1946), Stevan Hristi ć  (1885–1958), and Josip Slavenski (1896–1955). Maria Kostakeva (Essen) Problems of Terminology and the Verbal Mediation of New Music In this presentation some special problems of the new music terminology will be taken into consideration. There was an attitude of protest against the old social and aesthetic norms concerning the vocabulary of the Music Avant-garde after the Second World War. Common descriptions, especially those like kritisch komponieren or Verweigerung from Lachenmann`s school continued the system of thinking of Theodor Adorno and Luigi Nono. However, today it is necessary to give the music terminology a new meaning and to reactivate it as an important means of explanation and mediation regarding recent times. There are some problems arising in this connection. The first one is self-reflection as a descriptive category in the new music: this reflects the composer’s aim to explain his music to the listener and to make it more accessible in this way. By such verbal self-reflection most contemporary authors try simultaneously to discover and distinguish their place in the history of music. This self-reflection might be a potential danger, because it could exert influence on the public and affect the reception of the music by subjective estimation.   3 Another problem of music terminology in the contemporary epoch is the great multiplicity of aesthetic directions in the new music, demanding a specific apparatus of research. Compared to the previous epochs, in which musical grammar was unified, there is a specific kind of organization of each composer and of each work, which has to be described through suitable musical terms today. It is not possible to define, for example, a new sound through the influence of electronics and a new organization of the music after World War II by means of the classical analysis. The development of computer technology reflects further in acoustic music, where quasi electronic effects arise. All these hermeneutic problems have to be taken into consideration in my research. Helmut Loos (Leipzig) Paradigmenwechsel in der Musikwissenschaft: Vom Absoluten zum Konkreten Die Deutschen sehen sich gern als Volk der Dichter und Denker und haben eine Musikwissenschaft als Geisteswissenschaft hervorgebracht, die historischen Fakten, solange sie sich nicht auf bedeutende Kunstwerke beziehen, eine bemerkenswerte Gleichgültigkeit entgegenbringt. Welche Bedeutung einer breit angelegten Repertoireforschung gerade auch für die Moderne zukommt, wird an einer Bestandsaufnahme, der Sichtung vorliegender Untersuchungen umrissen. Jelena Jankovi ć   Meaning and Usage of the Term “Structure” in Theoretical and “Musical” Structuralism By examining the selected works and autopoetic texts of several distinguished representatives of the high modernism in music (above all, Pierre Boulez and Vladan Radovanovi ć , but also Iannis Xenakis, Olivier Messiaen and others) I will try to give arguments for and against the ’structuralism in music’. I will start with a question which is not new, but it still provokes possible new answers: to what extent did the characteristics of the theoretical structuralism (developed in the French culture during the sixth and seventh decade of the 20 th  century) influence the composers of the time? Or, in other words, do ’structural’ procedures in high modernist music really serve as evidences of the musical ’structuralism’?
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