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NANA_LEVI

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Extrusion best Practices
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    ENERGY ANALYSIS IN THE EXTRUSION OF PLASTICS. Author: NANA LEVI NJOBET Degree Thesis PLASTICS TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING 2012   DEGREE THESIS Arcada Degree Programme: PLASTICS TECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING Identification number: 9358 Author:  NANA LEVI NJOBET Title: ENERGY ANALYSIS OF THE EXTRUSION OF PLAS-TICS. Supervisor (Arcada): MATHEW VIHTONEN Commissioned by: Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the energy consumed during extruder runs using an amorphous polymer (polyamide) of grade grimaldi TR 55, in the Arcada  plastic laboratory. During this process, energy was applied to the polymer by the heating and the drive systems, this energy was used to melt and transport the polymer to the ex-truder die. The energy in the product will then be transferred to the water or air which is often discarded after the process. The focus of this thesis is to quantify and qualify this stream of energy that is transferred in the cooling medium (air or water), by suggesting different methods which this energy can be valuable to the company. This energy may be extracted and converted in to different forms of energy (mechanical or electrical) using a heat exchanger, depend-ing on the quality and quantity of the heat content in the stream, or may be used directly in heating the surroundings. Keywords: Extrusion, Polymer, Thermodynamic, Heat Exchange, En-thalpy, Auto-genouse, Viscous heating, Adiabatic Systems, Shear rate.  Number of pages: 54 Language: ENGLISH Date of acceptance: 11/12/2012    Table of Contents Figures ............................................................................................................................. 5   Tables ............................................................................................................................... 6   List of symbols used in the thesis: .................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.   DEFINATIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE THESIS ............................................... 8   Introduction .................................................................................................................. 10   1.1 Background...................................................................................................................... 11   2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................... 13   2.1 History of Polymer Extrusion ................................................................................ 13   2.2.0 Types of extruders ....................................................................................................... 13   2.2.1 Single Screw Extruders ............................................................................................... 14   2.2.2 Double Screw Extruder ................................................................................................ 17   2.2.3 Vented Extruders .......................................................................................................... 17   3.0 EXTRUDER MACHINE COMPONENTS ......................................................... 17   3.1 Screw ................................................................................................................................ 18   3.2 Barrel ................................................................................................................................ 20   3.3 Die......... ............................................................................................................................ 21   3.4 The Drive Systems .......................................................................................................... 21   4.0 HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS IN EXTRUDER ................................. 22   4.1 Electric Heating. .............................................................................................................. 22   4.2 Air Cooling ....................................................................................................................... 26   4.3 Water Cooling .................................................................................................................. 26   4.4 Screws Heating and Cooling. ......................................................................................... 28   5.0 Energy Recycling in Extrusion .............................................................................. 29   5.1 Factors Affecting Waste Heat Feasibility in Extruders ..... Error! Bookmark not defined.   5.2 Heat Quantity ......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.   5.3 Waste Heat Temperature/Quality ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.   5.4 Heat Transfer Area Requirement ......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.   5.5 The Composition of waste heat stream .............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.   6.0 HEAT ANALYSIS OF POLYMER EXTRUSION. ............................................ 29   6.1 Approximating the Temperature Change through the Die .......................................... 32   6.2.1 Extruder ......................................................................................................................... 34   6.2.2 Material .......................................................................................................................... 35   6.2.3 Material Preparation ..................................................................................................... 35   6.2.4 Machine Settings during Processing ......................................................................... 36   7.0 METHODS .............................................................................................................. 37   7.1 Calculations: .................................................................................................................... 39   7.2 1 The energy contribution by the drive system: .................................................. 41   7.2.2 The energy contribution by the heaters: ........................................................... 41      7.2.3 Energy for phase transformation ....................................................................... 42   8.0 Discussion: ............................................................................................................... 45   8.1 Conclusion: .............................................................................................................. 47   REFERENCES ............................................................................................................. 48  
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