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  RSET, 2011-12Engineering Physics Nanotechnology 4/10/20121 Nanotechnology  RSET, 2011-12Engineering Physics Nanotechnology 4/10/20122 1. Introduction ã Nanotechnology  – Study of structures with at least one characteristic dimension measured in nanometer range ã Range: Atomic size (10 -9 m) to Bulk macroscopic materials (10 -7 m), i.e. 1-100nm  – Physical properties of nano-materials are different from atoms or bulk materials  – Some nano-materials could harm human health or environment ã Short History  – Michael Faraday (1857) ã Discovery of colloidal gold particles  – Karl Wilhelm Wolfgang Ostwald (1917) ãBook ―Welt dervernachlaessigtenDimensionen ― or the ―World of negligible dimensions‖  – Study of colloidal state of matter   – Richard Feynman (1950) ãLecture at American Physical Society: ―There is plenty of room at the bottom‖  – On manipulating miniscule bits of condensed matter   RSET, 2011-12Engineering Physics Nanotechnology 2. Classification ã Nanostructures confined in 3D: 3 dimensional nanostructures  – Nanoparticles  – Nanopores  – Quantum dots ã Nanostructures confined in 2D: 2 dimensional nanostructures  – Nonowires  – Nanorods  – Nanofilaments  – Nanotubes(Carbon nanotubes, Silicon nanotubes) ã Nanostructures confined in 1D: 1 dimensional nanostructure  – Nanodiscs  – Nanoplatelets4/10/20123  RSET, 2011-12Engineering Physics Nanotechnology Nanorings ã Zinc Oxide Nanoring(2004)  – The first nanoringby Georgia Institute of Technology, USA  –  A single-crystal seamless nano-ring  – Made of piezoelectric zinc oxide of diameter of about 3 microns and thickness 15nm  – Made by a new crystal growth process: Spontaneous self-coiling process of nanobelts ã Layers of nanobeltsare rolled together as coils, layer-by-layer  ã Other examples  – Silver nanoring  – Gold nanoring  – Carbon nanoring ã  Applications of nanorings  – Real-time monitoring of blood pressure  – Measurement of blood flow rate  – Measurement of stress at the a single cell scale  – Micro-and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMs NEMs)4/10/20124
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