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Natural Gas Properties

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Notes on basic natural gas properties
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  9/29/20141 GAS FIELD ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS 1 CONTENTS - Introduction- Composition of Natural Gas- Ideal Gas Law- Properties of Gaseous Mixtures- Real Gas Equation of State- Determination of Compressibility Factor - Gas Conversion Equations 2  9/29/20142  Lesson Learning Outcome  At the end of the session, students should be able to: ã  Explain the governing laws of gas behavior. ã  Calculate basic parameters for determination of Gas flow performance, volume measurement and Gas reserves . 3 2.1 Introduction ã  Natural gas is a mixture of  hydrocarbon gases and impurities. ã  Hydrocarbon gases normally found in natural gas are methane,ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and small amounts of hexanes, heptanes, octane, and the heavier gases. ã  The impurities found in natural gas include carbon dioxide,hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, water vapor , and heavier  hydrocarbons. ã  Usually, the propane and heavier hydrocarbon fractions areremoved for additional processing because of their  high marketvalue as gasoline-blending stock and chemical-plant raw feedstock. ã  What usually reaches the transmission line for sale as naturalgas is mostly a mixture of  methane and ethane with some smallpercentage of propane. 4  9/29/20143 2.1 Introduction ã  Physical properties of natural gases are important in solving gas well performance, gas production, and gas transmission problems. ã  The properties of a natural gas may be determined either  directly from laboratory tests or predictions from known chemical composition of the gas. ã  In latter case, the calculations are based on the physical properties of individual components of the gas and on physical laws, often referred to as mixing rules, relating the properties of the components to those of the mixture. 5 Composition of Natural Gas ã  There is no one composition or mixture that can be referred to as the natural gas. ã  Each gas stream produced has its own composition. ã  Same reservoir  may have different compositions. ã  Each gas stream produced from a natural gas reservoir  can change composition as the reservoir is depleted. ã  Samples of the well stream should be analyzed periodically,since it may be necessary to change the production equipmentto satisfy the new gas composition. ã  Table 2.1 shows some typical natural gas streams. ã  Well stream 1 is typical of an associated gas, that is, gas produced with crude oil. 6  9/29/20144 Composition of Natural Gas ã  Well stream 2 and 3 are typical non-associated low-pressureand high-pressure gases, respectively. ã  Figure 2.1 shows the structures of some. 7 Composition of Natural Gas Table 2.1 Typical Natural Gas Analyses 8

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