Neuroglia.pdf (Ingles)

Lesson (1) The cellular organization of the nervous system (neuroglia) The neuroglia: structure and functions There is a debate on their actual number (formerly 10 times): now 2-3 times the number of the neurons 5 main types: -Astrocytes MACROGLIA -Ependimal cells -Oligodendrocytes -Schwann cells -Microglia Functions: -Filter (Blood-Brain Barrier) -Physical support -Protection (sequestration of ion or neurotransmitters in excess; resident immune system) -Trophic and metabolic support -Signal
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  1 The cellularorganizationof the nervoussystem(neuroglia) Lesson(1) The The neuroglianeuroglia: : structurestructureand and functionsfunctions Functions: -Filter(Blood-BrainBarrier)-Physicalsupport-Protection(sequestrationof ionor neurotransmittersin excess; residentimmune system)-Trophicand metabolicsupport-Signaltransduction(transcytosis, myelinformation)-Regenerationand degeneration/scarformation(neuralstemcells)Thereisa debateon theiractualnumber(formerly10 times): now2-3 timesthe numberof the neurons 5 maintypes: -  Astrocytes - Ependimalcells - Oligodendrocytes - Schwanncells - MicrogliaMACROGLIAMACROGLIA  2 What are What are gliaglia?? Neuroglia=“nerve glue”(Virchow, 1859)Gliaas cells: S. Ramon y Cajal, P. del Rio-Hortega, 1900-1920  A spatial view of  A spatial view of neuroglialneuroglialCells of CNSCells of CNS  3 THE NEUROGLIA:THE NEUROGLIA:some some FUNCTIONsFUNCTIONs ãAstrocytes& Ependimalcells: Blood brain barrier, support, trophic, signalling, support, homeostasis ãOligodendrocytesãSchwannCellsãMicroglia: resident immune systemSupport& myelin, signalling ?  4  Astrocyte/capillary interactions: foot processTwoTwotypestypesof of astrocytesastrocytes - Protoplasmic(pedunculated) in the greymatter -fibrousin the whitematter  Fibrousastrocytein the cerebellumwhitematter Pedunculatedastrocytes

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