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NewItem 203 Ganga Report

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  + POLLUTION   ASSESSMENT   :   RIVER    GANGA   JULY, 2013 CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD (Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India) Parivesh Bhawan, East Arjun Nagar, Delhi  –   110032 Website: www.cpcb.nic.in  FOREWORD River Bhagirathi and river Alaknanda srcinate in Garhwal Himalayas and join at Devprayag to form River Ganga. River Ganga traverses through Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal and thereafter enters Bangladesh. The important tributaries of Ganga are the Yamuna, the Kali, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Kosi, and the Sone. Various urban centers viz. Haridwar, Kannauj, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata which are located on the banks of river Ganga, draw water from the river to meet their requirement and almost the entire wastewater generated by these centers is disposed off into the river. The cluster of  polluting industries in Kashipur and Moradabad discharge their effluent in river Ramganga and that of Meerut and Modinagar in river Kali. Both these tributaries contribute pollution in river Ganga in the vicinity of Kannauj. The tannery cluster in Kanpur also discharges substantial amount of industrial effluent in the river. River Ganga is polluted by Faecal Coliforms bacteria in its entire length to variable degree whereas the level of BOD an indicator of organic pollution is largely exceeding the criteria in the stretch that spans from Kannauj to Tarighat. The diversion of water of River Ganga through Upper and Lower Ganga canals, leaves virtually very little or no flow in the main river. In absence of adequate flow the unabated discharge of treated sewage, even with 100% treatment, and BOD level of 30 mg/l, cannot bring the river water quality to  bathing level in lean season flow. To achieve the goal of river water quality minimum flow is required to be maintained throughout the year to support the eco-system in general and all forms of aquatic life in particular and ultimately maintain the wholesomeness of river Ganga. Central Pollution Control Board, in association with the State Pollution Control Boards of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal, has established a monitoring network to quantify water quality of the Ganga and suggests measures for improving the quality. The water quality data collected and collated by Central Pollution Control Board under National Water Quality Monitoring Programme and Assessment of sources of Pollution is presented in this treatise. This report also provides insight to the contribution of pollution from River Kali and River Ramganga. The cooperation extended by State Pollution Control Boards of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal in collecting and collating the data is acknowledged. The data presented in this report has been assessed, processed and compiled by Sh. Vishal Gandhi, Scientist, ‘C’, Sh. R M Bhardwaj, Scientist ‘D’, Sh.A.K.Sinha, Scientist ‘D’ and Ms. Garima Dublish, Research Associate under the supervision of Sh. J S Kamyotra, Member Secretary. We hope, the information contained in the report would be useful to the concerned authorities, academic institutions, researchers and others stakeholders involved in mission clean Ganga. (Ajay Tyagi) Chairman    DEDICATED TEAM Supervision and Co-ordination  Sh. J.S. Kamyotra Member Secretary Sh. R.M. Bhardwaj Scientist ‘D’   Report Preparation  Sh. Vishal Gandhi Scientist ‘ C ’  Ms. Garima Dublish Research Associate Ms. Alpana Narula JSA Monitoring & Survey Sh. A.K.Sinha Scientist ‘D’  Sh. Vishal Gandhi Scientist ‘ C ’  Sh. Mirazuddin Sr. Tech. Sh. Satyveer Singh Sr. Tech.   Table of Contents Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER-1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Salient Features of River Ganga ..................................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Developments in Ganga basin ......................................................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Upper Ganga Reach .................................................................................................................................. 4 1.2.2 Middle Ganga Reach: ................................................................................................................................ 6 1.2.3 Lower Ganga Reach: ................................................................................................................................. 8 CHAPTER -2 .......................................................................................................................................................... 9 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................. 9 2.1 SOURCES OF POLLUTION .................................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER -3 ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 STATUS OF WATER QUALITY OF RIVER GANGA .................................................................................. 10 3.0 WATER QUALITY MONITORING NETWORK ........................................................................... 10 3.1 WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS ................................................................................................ 10 3.2 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF RIVER GANGA .............................................................. 10 3.2.1 Water Quality Assessment in Uttarakhand ............................................................................... 11 3.2.2 Spatial and temporal trend of water quality in Uttarakhand .................................................. 14 3.2.3 Water Quality Assessment in Uttar Pradesh Upper Stretch (from Garhmukteshwar to Kanpur D/s) ................................................................................................................................................... 16 3.2.4 Spatial and temporal of water quality in Uttar Pradesh upper stretch ................................... 19 3.2.5 Water Quality Assessment in Uttar Pradesh Lower Stretch (from Dalmau to Trighat) ...... 21 3.2.6 Spatial and Temporal trend of water quality in Uttar Pradesh lower stretch ........................ 23 3.2.7 Water Quality Assessment in Bihar (from Buxar to Khalgaon) .............................................. 25 3.2.8 Spatial and Temporal trend of water quality in Bihar stretch ................................................. 29 3.2.9 Water Quality Assessment in West Bengal ................................................................................ 31 3.2.10 Spatial and Temporal trend of water quality in West Bengal stretch ..................................... 33 3.2.11 Polluted Stretchs in river Ganga ................................................................................................. 35 3.3 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................... 35 CHAPTER-4 ......................................................................................................................................................... 36 STATUS OF SEWAGE GENERATION AND TREATMENT CAPACITY ................................................. 36

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Jul 23, 2017
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